Enugu State is an inland state in southeastern Nigeria. Its capital is Enugu where the state derives its name. Enugu state was created in 1991 from the old Anambra State. The principal cities in the state are Enugu, Nsukka, Awgu, Udi, Oji-river.
Blessed with the largest deposits of coal in Africa, Natural gas, Limestone, Bauxite and very rich agricultural land. The current state government has however taken determined steps to reduce and ultimately eradicate abject poverty in the state using universal basic education, support for small scale enterprise and massive agricultural programme as cornerstone.
The Enugu state capital have been referred to as the education capital of Nigeria because it hosts an array of very fine educational institutions within the rolling green hills of the well planned city. Enugu state is seeking to attract foreign investors to exploit its huge solid minerals deposit and agricultural potential. Enugu state remains one of the most peaceful states in Nigeria.
Enugu State is one of the States in the South Eastern part of Nigeria. The state shares borders with Abia and Imo states to the South, Ebonyi State to the East, Benue State to the Northeast, Kogi State to the northwest and Anambra State to the West.
Though land-locked, Enugu is approximately 2-1/2 driving hours away from Port Harcourt, Calabar and Warri, all coastal cities with major shipping ports. Enugu is also located within an hour’s drive from Onitsha and 2 hours’ drive from Aba, both of which are trading centres in Nigeria. The city is also located within 5 driving hours from Abuja and 7 driving hours from Lagos, the administrative and commercial headquarters of Nigeria respectively.
The name of State derives from its capital city, Enugu. The word "Enugu" means "the top of the hill". The first European settlers arrived in the area in 1909, led by a British mining engineer, Mr. Kikson. In his quest for silver, he discovered coal in the Udi Ridge. The Colonial Governor, Lord Lugard, took keen interest in the discovery, and by 1914 the first shipment of coal was made to Britain. As mining activities increased in the area, a permanent cosmopolitan settlement emerged, supported by a railway system. Enugu acquired township status in 1917, and became strategic to British interests. Foreign businesses began to move into Enugu, the most notable of which were John Holt, Kingsway Stores, British Bank of West Africa and United Africa Company.
From Enugu, the British Administration was able to spread their influence over the Southern Province of Nigeria. The Colonial past of Enugu is today evidenced by the Georgian building types and delightful meandering narrow roads within the residential area originally reserved for the whites, an area which is today called the Government Reserved Area (GRA).
From being the capital of the Southern Provinces, Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region (now divided into nine States), then the capital of East Central State, Anambra State, (old) Enugu State, and now the capital of the present Enugu State through a process of state creation and diffusion of administrative authority.
Enugu has a good network of roads, which is currently being expanded and/or rehabilitated by the new civilian Government. The road network comprises Federal roads which connect Enugu to other States of the country, and State roads which connect the various Local Government Headquarters in the State.
Apart from a good network of roads, Enugu is also host to one of the oldest airports and railway stations in Nigeria.
ii. Postal Services and Telecommunications There is an efficient network of mail delivery service, dominated by such global players as UPS and DHL, in addition to the Government-owned Nigerian Postal Services (NIPOST) and other private local mail delivery companies.
Telephone services are provided by the Nigerian Telecommunications PLC (NITEL), and with the deregulation of the telecommunications sector, new telecommunications providers now have facilities and operations in Enugu State. Internet services and access are also available.
iii. Energy Electricity supply is relatively stable in Enugu. The Oji River Power Station (which used to supply electricity to all of Eastern Nigeria) is located in Enugu State. With the deregulation of electricity generation in Nigeria, and the proposed privatisation of the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), the State Government would assist private investors to negotiate the take over and reactivation of the Oji Power Station. This is more so with the proximity of the Enugu coal mines to the power station, a driving distance of about 20 minutes.
iv. Banks and Other Financial Institutions There is a regional office of the Central Bank of Nigeria in Enugu. The 25 consolidated banks in Nigeria all have at least one branch in the State, with many of their regional offices sited in the capital city. Since the onset of democracy in 1999 and the attendant private sector-led economic expansion, the number of bank branches has rapidly grown from five or so to well over 50 and still rising. There is also a good representation of insurance companies and other financial institutions in Enugu.
v. Educational Facilities Every community in Enugu State has at least one primary school and one secondary school, funded and run by Government. There are also large number of private nursery, primary and secondary schools in Enugu State.
Nigeria's first indigenous university, University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) is located in Enugu State. The State also hosts the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Enugu State College of Education Technical, Enugu, Caritas University, Amorji-Nike, Renaissance University, Ugbawka, Our Saviour’s Institute of Science and Technology, Enugu, and the Federal College of Education, Eha-Amufu. There are also a host of private computer schools and training centres concentrated in Enugu and Nsukka.
The result of this massive investment in education is a well-educated and affordable labour force. The new government in Enugu State is also planning to consciously encourage vocational and technical education at the intermediate level between secondary and tertiary levels of education. There is also deliberated policy for the promotion of computer education at the early stages of formal education.
vi. Medical Facilities The University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), one of the foremost teaching hospitals in Nigeria, is located in Enugu. So also is the state-of-the-art Enugu State University Teaching Hospital and College of Medicine at Parklane, GRA, Enugu. In addition to numerous private hospitals and clinics in the State, there are seven (7) District Hospitals at Enugu Urban, Udi, Agbani, Awgu, Ikem, Enugu-Ezike, and Nsukka and at least one health center or cottage hospital in every one of the seventeen (17) Local Government Areas and thirty nine (39) Development Centres in the State.
vii. Radio and Television Radio and television (TV) services are deregulated in Nigeria. Thus, in addition to local stations, broadcast from interaction satellite and cable TV/radio stations are received in Enugu, and indeed all over Nigeria.
With a population of about 2.5 million people, Enugu State has a population density two and half times the national average. Enugu, the capital city, is home to the Igbo speaking people of South Eastern Nigeria, widely known for their hospitality, industry, enterpreneurship and resourcefulness.
Economically, the State is predominantly rural and agrarian, with a substantial proportion of its working population engaged in farming, although trading (18.8%) and services (12.9%) are also important. In the urban areas trading is the dominant occupation, followed by services, mostly public services though the private sector is presently receiving tremendous impetus. A small proportion of the population is also engaged in manufacturing activities, with the most pronounced among them located in Enugu, Oji, Ohebedim and Nsukka.
There are 17 Local Government Areas in Enugu:
1. Aninri 2. Awgu 3. Enugu-East 4. Enugu-North 5. Enugu-South 6. Ezeagu 7. Igbo=Etiti 8. Igbo-Eze-North 9. Igbo-Eze-South 10. Isi-Uzo 11. Nkanu-East 12. Nkanu-West 13. Nsukka 14. Oji-River 15. Udenu 16. Udi 17. Uzo-Uwani