Languages

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Languages of Nigeria

The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. This number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria is English. The major languages spoken in Nigeria are Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Ijaw(Ijo,Izon), Tiv,Edo, Efik, Adamawa, Fulfulde, Idoma, and Central Kanuri. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes.

Living active Languages

Abanyom

[abm] 12,500 (1986). Cross River State, Ikom LGA, Abangkang the main village. Alternate names: Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Abon

[abo] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Abong town, east of Baissa. Alternate names: Abong, Abõ, Ba'ban. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Abua

[abn] 25,000 (1989 Faraclas). Rivers State, Degema and Ahoada LGAs. Alternate names: Abuan. Dialects: Central Abuan, Emughan, Otapha, Okpeden. The central dialect is understood by all others. Odual is the most closely related language. Lexical similarity 70% with Odual. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual

Abureni

[mgj] Bayelsa State, four towns: Brass LGA, Agrisaba (Obo-Emeke); Ogbia LGA, Idema; Nembe LGA, Okoroba; Ogbia LGA, Opume, which is politically part of Oloibiri. Alternate names: Mini. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

Acipa, Eastern

[acp] 5,000 (1993). Niger State, Kontagora LGA; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Towns include Randeggi and Bobi. Alternate names: Acipanci, Achipa, Sagamuk. Dialects: Boroma (Taboroma). Lexical similarity 83% between Randeggi and Bobi; 52% with Shama; 47% to 50% with Kamuku; 42% to 44% with Hungworo; 15% to 20% with Western Acipa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Acipa, Western

[awc] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Niger State, Kontagora LGA; Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA. Towns include Kumbashi, Kakihum, and Karisen. Alternate names: Acipanci, Achipa, Sagamuk. Dialects: Cep (Tochipo, Tacep, Western Acipanci). Morphological evidence suggests its affiliation with the Kamuku language cluster. Lexical similarity 89% to 95% among the dialects; 15% to 20% with Eastern Acipa; 18% with Hungworo; 16% to 17% with Shama; 15% to 17% with Kamuku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Aduge

[adu] 1,904 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Anambra State, Oyi LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern

Afade

[aal] 25,000 in Nigeria (1998 R. M. Blench). Population total all countries: 30,000. Borno State, Ngala LGA, 12 rather dense villages. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Affade, Afadeh, Afada, Kotoko, Mogari. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper

Agatu

[agc] 70,000 (1987 UBS). Benue State, Otuko Divison, districts of Agatu, Ochekwu, and Adoka; Nasarawa State, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs. Alternate names: North Idoma, Ochekwu. Dialects: Member of the Idoma dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

Agoi

[ibm] 12,000 (1989 Faraclas). Cross River State, Obubra LGA, Agoi-Ekpo, Ekom-Agoi, Agoi-Ibami, and Itu-Agoi towns. Alternate names: Wagoi, Ro Bambami, Wa Bambani, Ibami. Dialects: Iko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong

Agwagwune

[yay] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: "Akunakuna", Agwaguna, Gwune, Akurakura, Okurikan. Dialects: Abayongo (Bayono, Bayino), Abini (Obini, Abiri), Adim (Odim, Dim), Orum, Erei (Enna, Ezei), Agwagwune, Etono (Etuno). A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono

Àhàn

[ahn] 300 (2000 Blench). Ondo State, Ekiti LGA, Ajowa, Igashi, and Omou towns. Alternate names: Ahaan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ayere-Ahan

Ake

[aik] 2,000 (1999 R. Blench). Nasarawa State, Lafia LGA, 3 villages. Alternate names: Aike, Akye. Dialects: The closest language is Eggon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B

Akpa

[akf] 26,894 (2000 WCD). Benue State, Otukpo LGA. Alternate names: Akweya. Dialects: Dialect cluster. Lexical similarity 84% with Ekpari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa

Akpes

[ibe] 10,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Ondo State, Akoko North LGA. Alternate names: Ibaram-Efifa. Dialects: Akunnu (Akpes), Ase, Daja, Efifa, Esuku (Echuku), Gedegede, Ikorom, Ibaram, Iyani. A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Akpes

Akuku

[ayk] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

Akum

[aku] Taraba State, near the Cameroon border, 3 villages in Nigeria (Manga, Ekban, Konkom). Alternate names: Anyar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

Alago

[ala] 35,052 (2000). Nasarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs. Alternate names: Aragu, Arago, Argo, Idoma Nokwu. Dialects: Doma, Agwatashi, Keana, Assaikio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

Alege

[alf] 1,200 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Alegi, Uge, Ugbe. Dialects: Related to Gayi (Bisu of Obanliku cluster) of Nigeria and Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

Alumu-Tesu

[aab] 4,702 (2000 WCD). Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA, near Wamba. Alumu is 7 villages and Tesu is 1. Alternate names: Arum-Cesu, Arum-Chessu, Arum-Tesu, Alumu. Dialects: Alumu (Arum), Tesu. Related to Toro. The two dialects have only intonation differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Alumic

Ambo

[amb] 1,000. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, 1 village east of Baissa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Amo

[amo] 12,263 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Amon, Among, Timap, Ba. Dialects: Not close to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo,

Anaang

[anw] 1,000,000 (1990). Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs. Alternate names: Anang, Annang. Dialects: Ikot Ekpene, Abak, Ukanafun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik

Áncá

[acb] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nca village. Alternate names: Bunta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified

Arabic, Shuwa

[shu] 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Borno State, Dikwa, Konduga, Ngala, and Bama LGAs, and ranging widely across Borno and Yobe states on transhumance. Alternate names: Arabe Choa, Shuwa, Shua Arabic, Chadian Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

Arigidi

[aqg] 48,000 (1986 in Crozier and Blench 1992). Population includes 45,000 Igasi, 3,000 Uro. Ondo State, Akoko North LGA; Kogi State, Kogi LGA. Alternate names: North Akoko. Dialects: Oyin, Uro, Arigidí, Erúsú (Erushu), Ojo, Udo (Ido, Òwòn Ùdò, Oke-Agbe), Afa (Affa, Òwòn Àfá), Òge (Òwòn Ògè), Aje, Ese (Òwòn Èsé), Igasi (Ìgàshí, Òwòn Ìgásí). A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Akokoid


Ashe

[ahs] 35,000 (1972 Barrett). Population includes Begbere-Ejar. Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Koron Ache, Ache, Ala, Koron Ala, Koro Makama. Dialects: Related to Begbere-Ejar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro


Asu

[aum] 5,000 (1998 Blench). Niger State, Mariga LGA, several villages south of Kontagora. Alternate names: Abewa, Ebe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

Atsam

[cch] 30,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Cawai, Cawe, Cawi, Chawai, Chawe, Chawi. Dialects: Closest to Piti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam

Awak [awo] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA. Alternate names: Awok, Yebu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak

Ayere

[aye] 3,000 (1992 Blench). Kwara State, Oyi LGA, Kabba District. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan

Ayu

[ayu] 800 (2003 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA, Kongon, Gwade, Tayu, Arau, Diger, Ikwa, Agamati, Anka Ambel, and Amantu villages. Alternate names: Aya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ayu

Baan

[bvj] 5,000 (1990). Rivers State, Gokana, Tai, and Eleme LGAs, Ban-Ogoi plus villages. Alternate names: Baan-Ogoi, Goi, Ogoi. Dialects: Ka-Ban, Kesari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West

Baangi

[bqx] 15,000 (1996). Northern Niger State. Alternate names: Cibaangi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari


Baatonum

[bba] 100,000 in Nigeria (1995 Jones). Kwara State, Borgu LGA; Niger State. Alternate names: Baatonun, Bariba, Batonnum, Batonu, Baatonun-Kwara, Bargu, Burgu, Borgu, Borgawa, Berba, Barba, Bogung, Zana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba

Bacama

[bcy] 150,000 (1992 CAPRO). Adamawa State, Numan and Guyuk LGAs, Kaduna State, northeast of Kaduna town. Alternate names: Bachama, Bashamma, Abacama, Besema, Bwareba, Gboare. Dialects: Mulyen (Mulwyin, Mwulyin), Opalo, Wa-Duku. In Bata dialect cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Bada

[bau] 10,000 (1991 SIL). Plateau State, Kanam LGA; Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Alternate names: Badawa, Badanchi, Bat, Mbada, Mbat, Mbadawa, Kanna, Jar, Jarawan Kogi, Garaka, River Jarawa, Plains Jarawa. Dialects: Gar. A member of the Jarawa dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Bade

[bde] 250,000 (1993). Yobe State, Bade LGA; Jigawa State, Hadejia LGA. Alternate names: Bedde, Bede, Gidgid. Dialects: Gashua Bade (Mazgarwa), Southern Bade (Bade-Kado), Western Bade (Magwaram. Maagwaram), Shirawa. Close to Duwai and Ngizim. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper

Bakpinka

[bbs] Ethnic population: 3,416 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: Begbungba, Uwet, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong

Bali

[bcn] 2,000 (1991 Blench). Adamawa State, Numan LGA, at Bali, 30 km from Numan on the road to Jalingo. Alternate names: Bibaali, Maya, Abaali, Ibaali. Dialects: Close to Kpasam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

Bangwinji

[bsj] 6,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Balanga, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs. Alternate names: Bangunji, Bangjinge. Dialects: Kaalo, Naaban. Noun class system is closer to Waja and Tula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula

Barikanchi

[bxo] Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based

Basa

[bzw] 100,000 (1973 SIL). Kogi State, Bassa and Ankpa LGAs; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA; Federal Capital Territory, Yaba and Kwali LGAs; Benue State, Makurdi LGA. Alternate names: Basa-Benue, Rubasa, Rubassa, "Bassa-Kwomu", "Bassa-Komo", Abatsa, Abacha. Dialects: North-south dialect division along the Benue River. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

Basa-Gurmana

[buj] 2,000 (1987 Blench). Niger State, border of Rafi and Chanchaga LGAs, Kafin Gurmana. Alternate names: Koromba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

Bassa-Kontagora

[bsr] 10 (1987). Ethnic population: 30,000. Niger State, Mariga LGA, northeast of Kontagora. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa Nearly extinct.

Bata

[bta] 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 152,500. Adamawa State, Numan, Song, Fufore, and Mubi LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Gbwata, Batta, Demsa Bata, Gboati, Gbwate, Bete, Birsa, Dunu. Dialects: Zumu (Zomo, Jimo), Wadi (Wa'i), Malabu, Kobotachi, Ribaw (Ribow), Demsa, Garoua (Garua), Jirai. Closely related languages: Bacama, Gude, Nzanyi, Vin, Fali, Zizilivakan. They have joined with the Bacama in the Bwatiye Association. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8


Batu

[btu] 25,000. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, several villages east of Baissa, below the Mambila escarpment. Dialects: Amanda-Afi, Angwe, Kamino. A language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid


Bauchi

[bsf] 20,000 (1988 Blench). Niger State, Rafi and Shiroro LGAs. Alternate names: Bauci, Baushi, Kushi. Dialects: Wayam-Rubu, Madaka (Adeka), Supana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana


Beele

[bxq] 120 (1922 Temple). Bauchi State, near the Bole, a few villages. Alternate names: Bele, Àbéélé, Bellawa. Dialects: A separate language from Bole. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper


Begbere-Ejar

[bqv] 35,000 (1972 Barrett). Population includes Ashe. Kaduna State, Kachia LGA, Plateau State, Keffi LGA. Alternate names: Koro Agwe, Agere, Koro Makama, Koro Myamya, Miamia, Miamiya. Dialects: Koron Panda, Koron Ache, Ejar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro


Bekwarra

[bkv] 100,000 (1989 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Ebekwara, Bekworra, Yakoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi


Bena

[yun] 95,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGAs, new settlements along the road from Song to Yola. Alternate names: Ebina, Binna, Gbinna, Ebuna, Buna, Yongor, Yungur, Yangeru, Purra, "Lala". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba


Berom

[bom] 300,000 (1993 SIL). Population includes Cen 2,000. Plateau State, Berakin Ladi and Jos LGAs; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Bauchi State. Alternate names: Birom, Berum, Gbang, Kibo, Kibbo, Kibbun, Kibyen, "Shosho", Aboro, Boro-Aboro, Afango, Chenberom, Cen Berom. Dialects: Gyell-Kuru-Vwang (Ngell-Kuru-Vwang), Fan-Foron-Heikpang, Bachit-Gashish, Du-Ropp-Rim, Hoss, Cen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic


Bete

[byf] 50 (1992). Ethnic population: 3,000. Taraba State, Takum LGA, Bete town, at the foot of Bete mountain, south of Wukari. Dialects: Reported to have been close to Lufu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid Nearly extinct.


Bete-Bendi

[btt] 36,800 (1963). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Bette-Bendi, Dama. Dialects: Bete (Bette, Mbete), Bendi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi


Bile

[bil] 30,000 (1992). East of Numan, along Benue River, Adamawa State, Numan LGAs, southwest of Numan. Alternate names: Bille, Billanchi, Kunbille, Bili. Dialects: Related to Mbula-Bwazza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian


Bina

[byj] 7,000 (2000). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Bogana, Binawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru


Biseni

[ije] 4,800 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Bayelsa State, Biseni-Okordia LGA. Alternate names: Buseni, Amegi, Northeast Central Ijo. Dialects: Not fully intelligible with other languages in the Ijo language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Inland Ijo


Bitare

[brt] 113,862 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 119,896. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, near Baissa. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Njwande, Yukutare. Dialects: Close to Abong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid


Boga

[bvw] 10,000 (1990 Blench). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Alternate names: Boka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern


Boghom

[bux] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Shendam LGAs. Alternate names: Bogghom, Bohom, Burom, Burum, Burrum, Burma, Borrom, Boghorom, Bokiyim. Dialects: Related to Mangas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom


Boko

[bqc] 40,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Niger State, Borgu LGA; Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA, from Senji in the north to Kenugbe and Kaoje, 150 km to the south and Demmo, 50 km to the east, 35 villages. Alternate names: Bokko, Bokonya, Boo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa


Bokobaru

[bus] 30,000 (1997 Jones). Population includes 6,000 in Kaiama, 24,000 in other villages. Kwara State, primarily Kaiama LGA, some in Baruten LGA. 35 villages. Alternate names: Busa-Bokobaru, Zongben, Zõgbe. Dialects: Kaiama, Village Bokobaru. Speakers of Kaiama and dialect in other villages have good inherent intelligibility of each other's dialects. The Bokobaru variety is distinct enough to require separate literature from Boko of Benin. The Busa variety of Nigeria may also require separate literature. Lexical similarity 86% with Boko, 91% with Busa, 53% with Kyenga, 50% with Bissa of Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa


Bokyi

[bky] 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Population total all countries: 143,700. Cross River State, Ikom, Obudu, and Ogoja LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Boki, Nki, Okii, Uki, Nfua, Osikom, Osukam, Vaaneroki. Dialects: Basua (Bashua), Irruan (Erwan, Eerwee), Boje (Bojie), Kwakwagom, Nsadop, Osokom, Wula (Baswo, Okundi, Kecwan), Oku, Boorim, Oyokom, Abo (Abu), Eastern Bokyi (East Boki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi


Bole

[bol] 100,000 (1990). Bauchi State, Dukku, Alkaleri, and Darazo LGAs; Gombe State, Dukku LGA; Yobe State, Fika LGA; Plateau State, Wase LGA. Alternate names: Bolanchi, Ampika, Borpika, Bolewa, Bolawa. Dialects: Bara, Fika (Fikankayen, Anpika). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper


Bo-Rukul

[mae] 2,000 (1999 R. Blench). Population includes 1,000 in each dialect. Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Barkul, Mabo, Richa, Mwa villages. Alternate names: Mabo-Barkul, Mabo-Barukul, "Kaleri". Dialects: Bo, Rukul. A language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern

Bu

[jid] 6,000 (1999 R. Blench). Population includes 4,000 Bu and 2,000 Ninkada. Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA, 4 villages. Alternate names: Jida-Abu, Jidda-Abu, Jida, Ibut, Nakare. Dialects: Bu (Abu), Ninkada (Jida). The 2 dialects are ethnically and geographically distinct, but linguistically similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Bukwen

[buz] 1,000. Taraba State, near Takum, 1 village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

Bumaji

[byp] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Obudu LGA, Bumaji town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi


Burak

[bys] 4,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Billiri and Kaltungo LGAs, Burak town. Alternate names: Buurak. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen


Bura-Pabir

[bwr] 250,000 (1987 UBS). Population includes 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa State (1992). Borno State, Biu and Askira-Uba LGAs; Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Alternate names: Bura, Burra, Bourrah, Pabir, Babir, Babur, Barburr, Mya Bura, Kwojeffa, Huve, Huviya. Dialects: Pela (Bura Pela, Hill Bura), Hyil Hawul (Bura Hyilhawul, Plain Bura). Kofa may be a related language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2,


Bure

[bvh] 500. Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, one village southeast of Darazo town. Alternate names: Bubure. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole


Buru

[bqw] 1,000. Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, east of Baissa, a village near Batu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified


Busa

[bqp] 20,000 (1998 Ross Jones SIM). Niger State, Borgu LGA, Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA, 35 villages. Alternate names: Bisã, Bisayã, Busa-Bisã, Busano, Bussanchi. Dialects: New Busa, Wawa, Illo. The two dialects are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Busa has more prestige, but Wawa viewed as purer, and used for literature. New Busa has Hausa-influenced phonology. Illo Busa has Boko influence. Other Busa languages (Boko, Bokobaru) require separate literature. Lexical similarity 91% with Bokobaru, 85% with Boko, 54% with Kyenga, 50% with Bissa in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa


Cakfem-Mushere

[cky] 5,000 (1990 SIL). Plateau State, Mangu LGA. Alternate names: Chakfem, Chokfem. Dialects: Kadim-Kaban, Jajura. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1


Cara

[cfd] 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Plateau State, Bassa LGA, Teriya village. Alternate names: Chara, Fachara, Nfachara, Fakara, Pakara, Tera, Teriya, Terri, Tariya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, North-Central


Centúúm

[cet] 200 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Balanga LGA, Cham town, among the Dijim. Alternate names: Cen Tuum. Classification: Language Isolate


Che

[ruk] 100,000 (2003 Blench). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Rukuba, Kuche, Bache, Inchazi, Sale. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A


Cibak

[ckl] 100,000 (1993 CAPRO). Borno State, Damboa LGA. Alternate names: Chibuk, Chibok, Chibbak, Chibbuk, Kyibaku, Kibbaku, Kikuk. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1


Cinda-Regi-Tiyal

[cdr] 30,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger State, Chanchaga, Rafi, and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Kamuku. Dialects: Cinda (Ucinda, Jinda, Majinda, Tegina, Makangara), Regi, Tiyal (Tiyar, Kuki). Lexical similarity 90% to 95% among the three dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku


Cineni

[cie] 3,000 (1998). Borno State, Gwoza LGA, Cineni village. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda


Cishingini

[asg] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger State, Borgu and Agwara LGAs, just west of the Niger River and north of the Kainji Lake National Park; and Kebbi State, east of the Niger River from the Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko. Alternate names: Ashaganna, Ashingini, Aschingini, Chisingini, "Maunchi", "Mawanchi", Kambari, Kamberri, Kamberchi, Yauri, Agwara Kambari. Dialects: Rofia. A member of the Kambari cluster, which includes Tsishingini and Tsikimba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

Ciwogai

[tgd] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Tsagu village and farms in the vicinity. Near the Diri. Alternate names: Tsagu, Sago. Dialects: Related to Diri. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

C'lela

[dri] 90,000 (1993 SIL). Eastern Kebbi State, Zuru, Sakaba, and Donko-Wasagu LGAs; Niger State, Rijau LGA; and migrants farther south. Alternate names: Lela, Lalawa, Kolela, Cala-Cala, Chilela, Chilala, Dakarkari, Dakakari, Dakkarkari. Dialects: Lila (Zuru, Senchi, Southern Lela), Dabai (Central Lela), Ribah, Adoma (Aroma, Roma-Na, Roma, Yelmo, Northern Lela). Lexical similarity 93% to 98% among dialects at Rade, Ribah, Dabai, and Senchi. Lexical similarity 55% with Duka, 54% with the Fakai cluster, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri, 20% with Acipa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka


Como Karim

[cfg] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Jalingo, Karim Lamido LGAs, near Lau. Alternate names: Chomo, Shomong, Shomoh, Nuadhu, Shomo Karim, Kirim, Kiyu, Kinzimba, Asom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo


Cori

[cry] 1,000 (2004). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA, one village and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Chori. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic


Daba

[dbq] 1,000 in Nigeria (1992 Crozier and Blench). Adamawa State, Mubi LGA, between Mubi and Bahuli, 1 village. Alternate names: Dabba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7


Dadiya

[dbd] 30,000 (1998). Bauchi State, Balanga LGA; Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa State, Numan LGA, between Dadiya and Bambam. Alternate names: Dadia, Daadiya, Loodiya. Dialects: Tunga (Boleri), Loofiyo, Kookwila, Loofaa. The dialect names are also names of settlements. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya


Dass

[dot] 8,830. Population includes 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census). Bauchi State, Akleri, Toro, and Dass LGAs; Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Barawa. Dialects: Lukshi (Dekshi), Durr-Baraza (Bandas), Zumbul (Boodla), Wandi (Wangday), Dot (Dwat, Zodi, Dott). A dialect cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3


Daza

[dzd] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, a few villages. Alternate names: Dazawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A


Defaka

[afn] 200 (2001 Blench). Rivers State, Opobo-Nkoro LGA, in the Niger Delta, town of Nkoro. Alternate names: Afakani. Dialects: Related to the Ijo group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Defaka


Degema

[deg] 10,000 (1999 SIL). Rivers State, Degema LGA, Usokun-Degema (Usokun) and Degema Town (Atala) communities. Alternate names: "Udekama". Dialects: Atala, Usokun (Kala Degema). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta


Dendi

[ddn] 2,050 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Kebbi State, Argungu and Bagudo LGAs, on upper Niger River. Alternate names: Dandawa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern


Deno

[dbb] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, 45 km northeast of Bauchi town. Alternate names: Denawa, Denwa, Be. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Dera

[kna] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Gongola State, Guyuk LGA; Borno State, Biu LGA. Alternate names: Kanakuru. Dialects: Shani, Shellen, Gasi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera


Dghwede

[dgh] 30,000 (1980 UBS). Borno State, Gwoza LGA. Alternate names: Hude, Johode, Traude, Dehoxde, Tghuade, Toghwede, Wa'a, Azaghvana, Zaghvana. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda


Dibo

[dio] 100,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Niger State, Lapai LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Shitako, Zitako, Zhitako. Ganagana, Ganagawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi


Dijim-Bwilim

[cfa] 25,000 (1998). Bauchi State, Balanga LGA; Gongola State, Numan LGA. Dialects: Dijim (Cham, Cam), Bwilim (Mwano, Mwona, Mwomo, Mona, Mwana, Fitilai). Related to Lotsu-Piri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona


Diri

[dwa] 7,196 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Ningi and Darazo LGAs. Alternate names: Dirya, Diriya, Diryawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2


Dirim

[dir] 9,000 (1992). Taraba State, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Dirin, Dirrim, Daka, Dakka. Dialects: Close to Samba Daka and may be a dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Dakoid


Doka

[dbi] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA, 1 village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern


Doko-Uyanga

[uya] 200. Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, several villages. Alternate names: Uyanga, Dosanga, Basanga, Iko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong


Dong

[doh] 5,000 (1998 Blench). Taraba State, Zing LGA; Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA. Alternate names: Donga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern,


Dakoid

[dbm] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Alkaleri and Tafawa Balewa LGAs; Plateau State, Kanam LGA. Alternate names: Dugurawa, Dugarwa, Duguranchi, Dukuri. Dialects: Gar Duguri, Badara Duguri, Northeast Duguri, Southwest Duguri. A member of the Jarawa dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Duguza

[dza] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toro LGA; Plateau State, Jos South LGA. Alternate names: Dugusa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Duhwa

[kbz] 800 (1973 SIL). Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village. Alternate names: Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

Dulbu

[dbo] 100 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Dulbu village southeast of Bauchi town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Dungu

[dbv] 1,104 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Dungi town. Alternate names: Dungi, Dingi, Dwingi, Dunjawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Duwai

[dbp] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Yobe State, Bade LGA; Kano State, Hadejia LGA. Alternate names: Evji, Eastern Bade. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai

Dza

[jen] 20,131 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, and Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Jen town, east of Karim-Lamido town, south of Bambuka town, by the Benue River bank. Alternate names: Janjo, Jenjo, Jen. Dialects: Kaigama, Laredo (Ardido), Jaule (Joole). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Dzodinka

[add] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, 1 village on the Cameroon border. Alternate names: Adere, Adiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

Ebira

[igb] 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). About 90% are monolingual. Kwara State, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nasarawa State, Nasarawa LGA; Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Alternate names: Igbirra, Igbarra, Ibara, Kotokori, Katawa, Kwotto, Igbira, Egbira, Egbura. Dialects: Okene (Hima, Ihima), Igara (Etuno), Koto (Igu, Egu, Ika, Bira, Biri, Panda). A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade

Ebughu

[ebg] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo and Oron LGAs. Alternate names: Oron. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ebughu

Edo

[bin] 1,000,000 (1999 WA). Bendel State, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGAs. Alternate names: Bini, Benin, Addo, Oviedo, Ovioba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora


Efai

[efa] 6,319 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 7,212. Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Effiat. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efai


Efik

[efi] 400,000 (1998). Cross River State, Calabar Municipality, Odukpani and Akamkpa LGAs; Akwa Ibom State, town of Itu. Alternate names: Calabar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik


Efutop

[ofu] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Alternate names: Ofutop, Agbaragba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid


Eggon

[ego] 140,368 (1990). Nasarawa State, Nasarawa Eggon, Akwanga, Lafia, Awe, and Obi LGAs. Alternate names: Egon, Mo Egon, Mada Eggon, Hill Mada, Mada Dutse. Dialects: 25 dialects are locally recognized, but their status is unclear. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B


Ehueun

[ehu] 14,244 (2000 WCD). Ondo State, Akoko South LGA. Alternate names: Ekpimi, Ekpenmen, Epimi. Dialects: Related to Ukue. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse


Ejagham

[etu] 67,281 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 116,675. Cross River State, Akampka, Idom, Odukpani, Calabar LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ekoi. Dialects: Southern Ejagham (Ekin, Qua, Kwa, Aqua, Abakpa), Western Ejagham, Eastern Ejagham. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid


Ekajuk

[eka] 30,000 (1986 Asinya). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA, Bansara, Nwang, Ntara 1, 2, and 3, and Ebanibim towns. Alternate names: Akajo, Akajuk. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Eki

[eki] 5,000 (1988, in Crozier and Blench 1992:36). Cross River State, northeast of Efik, south of Idere. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Probably Central Lower Cross, related to Anaang. Close to Idere (B. Connell 1998). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo

Ekit

[eke] 200,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo Ibeno and Eket LGAs. Alternate names: Eket. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Some dialect variation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit

Ekpeye

[ekp] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Ahoada East and Ahoada West LGAs. Alternate names: Ekpabya, Ekkpahia, Ekpaffia. Dialects: Ako, Upata, Ubye, Igbuduya. Related to Igbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Ekpeye

Eleme

[elm] 58,000 (1990 UBS). Rivers State, Eleme LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West

Eloyi

[afo] 25,000 (2000 SIL). Plateau State, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs; Benue State, Otukpo LGA. Alternate names: Afo, Afu, Aho, Afao, Epe, Keffi. Dialects: Mbeci, Mbeji, Mbamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi

Emai-Iuleha-Ora

[ema] 100,000 (1987 Schaefer). Edo State, Owan LGA. Alternate names: Kunibum, Ivbiosakon. Dialects: Ivhimion, Emai, Iuleha, Ora. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora

Engenni

[enn] 20,000 (1980 UBS). Rivers State, Ahoada West LGA; Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Ngene, Egene. Dialects: Ediro, Inedua, Ogua, Zarama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta

English

[eng] Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

Enwan

[enw] 15,000 (1998 B. Connell). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. Alternate names: Oron. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda

Enwan

[env] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Epie

[epi] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Epie-Atissa. Dialects: Atisa (Atissa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta

Eruwa

[erh] 64,000 (2004). Delta State, Isoko LGA. Alternate names: Erohwa, Erakwa, Arokwa. Dialects: Related to Urhobo. Not intelligible with any Isoko dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

Esan

[ish] 200,000 (1973 SIL). Population includes 7,000 Ekpon in 7 villages (1998). Edo State, Agbazko, Okpebho, Owan, and Etsako LGAs. Alternate names: Ishan, Isa, Esa, Anwain. Dialects: Ekpon, Igueben. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora

Etebi

[etb] 15,000 (1989). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo Ibeno LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit

Eten

[etx] 40,000 (2003 Blench). Plateau State, Barakin Ladi LGA; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Ganawuri, Etien, Jal, Ten, Niten, Aten, Iten. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic

Etkywan

[ich] 50,167 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, Bali, and part of Wukari LGAs. Alternate names: Icen, Ichen, Itchen, Etekwe, Kyato, Kyanton, Kentu, Nyidu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen

Etulo

[utr] 10,000 (1988 Shain). Benue State, Gboko LGA; Taraba State, Wukari LGA. Alternate names: Eturo, Utur, Turumawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo

Evant

[bzz] 10,000 in Nigeria (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 11,000. Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Evand, Avand, Avande, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando, Balegete, Belegete. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Iceve-Maci, Tiv, and Otank. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Fali

[fli] 20,000 (1990 in Crozier and Blench 1992:39). Population includes 5,000 or fewer in Vin dialect. Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs, 4 principal villages. Alternate names: Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim. Dialects: Vin (Uroovin, Uvin, Vimtim), Huli (Bahuli, Urahuli), Madzarin (Ura Madzarin, Muchella), Bween (Urambween, Bagira). Dialects are named after villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Fali of Baissa

[fah] Few speakers left (1992 Crozier and Blench). Southern Taraba State, Falinga Plateau Region. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified Nearly extinct.

Fam

[fam] 1,000 (1984). Taraba State, Bali LGA, 17 km east of Kungana. Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Fam

Firan

[fir] 2,500 (2003 Blench). Plateau State, Barkin Ladi LGA, Kwakwi Station south of Jos. Alternate names: Faran, Foron, Yes Firan, Kwakwi. Dialects: Related to Izere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, Izeric

Fulfulde, Adamawa

[fub] 7,611,000 includes all Fulfulde in Nigeria (1991 SIL). East central Nigeria, Taraba and Adamawa States, center in Yola. Alternate names: Eastern Fulfulde, Fulatanchi, Fulani, Fula, Fillanci. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern

Fulfulde, Benin-Togo

[fue] South and west of the Niger River, from the corner where Nigeria, Niger, and Benin meet, down to about 50 km south of where a big tributary joins the Niger River from the east, and following the Niger River south to the delta. The southern boundary is a rough east-west line from a point below the intersection of the rivers to about 75 km south of the angle in the Benin-Nigeria border, where the border bends from almost straight north-south to about 30 km nearly due east. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central

Fulfulde

[fuv] 1,707,926 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population includes 340,000 in Sokoto. Kano-Katsina dialect is spoken in the area of Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos Plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Gombe is the center. The Bororro dialect is in Bornu State; Maiduguri is the center. Sokoto is in Sokoto State. Also spoken in Cameroon, Chad. Alternate names: Kano-Katsina-Bororo Fulfulde. Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororo (Mbororo, Ako, Nomadic Fulfulde), Sokoto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central

Fum

[fum] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, on the Cameroon border. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields

Fungwa

[ula] 1,000 (1992 Blench). Niger State, Rafi LGA. Alternate names: Tufungwa, Afungwa, Ura, Ula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Fyam

[pym] 3,000. Plateau State, Jos, Barkin Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: Fyem, Pyem, Paiem, Gyem, Fem, Pem, Genawa, Gyema. Dialects: Closest to Horom. Chadic influence. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern

Fyer

[fie] 26,131 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Mangu LGA, Fyer District. Alternate names: Fier. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer

Gaa

[ttb] 10,000 (1997 Boyd). Adamawa State, Ganye LGA; Tiba Plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of the Shebshi Mountains. Alternate names: Tiba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid

Ga'anda

[gqa] 43,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. Some also in Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGAs, and Borno State, Biu LGA. Alternate names: Ga'andu, Ganda, Mokar, Makwar. Dialects: Ga'anda, Gabin. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern

Gade

[ged] 72,100 (2000). Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa State, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Gede. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade

Galambu

[glo] Ethnic population: 21,622 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Alternate names: Galambi, Galambe, Galembi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Gbagyi

[gbr] 700,000 (1991 SIL). Niger State, Rafi, Chanchaga, Shiroro, Suleija LGAs; Kaduna State, Kachia LGA; Nasarawa State, Keffi, Nasarawa LGAs; Federal Capital Territory. Alternate names: Ibagyi, Gbagye, Gwari, East Gwari, Gwari Matai. Dialects: Tawari, Kuta, Diko, Karu, Kaduna, Louome, Vwezhi, Ngenge (Genge, Gyange, Gyengyen). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari

Gbari

[gby] 350,000 (2002 SIL). From Zungeru in Niger State to the Kaduna River in the north, southeast through Minna and Paiko to a little past Kwali in the Federal Capital Territory. Niger State, Chanchaga, Suleija, Agaie, Rafi, and Lapai LGAs; Nasarawa State, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Gbari Yamma, Gwari Yamma, West Gwari, Nkwa. Dialects: Kwali, Izem, Gayegi, Gbagyi Nkwa, Paiko, Botai, Jezhu, Kong, Kwange (Kangye, Agbawi, Wake, Wi), Wahe. Lexical similarity 89% to 98% among dialects, 66% to 78% with Gbagyi dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari

Gbaya, Northwest

[gya] Very few speakers in Nigeria. Taraba State, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Baya. Dialects: Gbeya (Gbea). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest

Gbiri-Niragu

[grh] 25,000 (2000). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Gure-Kahugu. Dialects: Gbiri (Igbiri, Agari, Agbiri, Gura, Gure), Niragu (Kahugu, Kapugu, Kafugu, Kagu, Anirago). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Geji

[gji] 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Gezawa, Gejawa, Kayauri. Dialects: Bolu (Magang, Pelu), Geji (Gyaazi, Gezawa, Gaejawa), Zaranda (Buu). Geji dialect cluster, in Barawa language cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

Gengle

[geg] 4,000. Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. Alternate names: Wegele, Momu, Yagele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Gera

[gew] 200,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Ganjuwa LGAs, Bauchi town. Alternate names: Gerawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Geruma

[gea] 9,029 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Toro, Ganjuwa, Bauchi, and Southjern Ningi LGAs. Alternate names: Gerema, Germa. Dialects: Sum, Duurum. Gamsawa (Gamshi) mentioned by Temple (1922) could be another dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Ghotuo

[aaa] 9,000 (1994). Edo State, Owan, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. Alternate names: Otwa, Otuo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Gibanawa

[gib] Sokoto State, Jega LGA, near the Dukawa. Alternate names: Gembanawa, Gimbanawa, Jega. Dialects: Hausa-speaking Fulani. Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based

Giiwo

[kks] 14,000 (1998 SIL). Bauchi State, Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGAs. Alternate names: Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifi, Kirifawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Glavda

[glw] 28,465 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 31,265. Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly in Nggoshe village (different from Ngoshi), and in Agapalawa, Amuda, Vale, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, Pelekwa villages. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Galavda, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda, Galvaxdaxa. Dialects: Bokwa, Ngoshie (Ngweshe), Glavda. Close to Guduf. Wolff (1971) separates Glavda from Guduf and Gvoko. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

Goemai

[ank] 200,000 (1995). Plateau State, Shendam; Nasarawa State, Lafia and Awe LGAs. Alternate names: Ankwai, Ankwei, Ankwe, Kemai. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

Gokana

[gkn] 100,000 (1989). Rivers State, Gokana LGA. Dialects: Bodo, Bomu, Dere, Kibangha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East

Gude

[gde] 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Population total all countries: 96,000. Adamawa State, Mubi LGA; Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Goude, Cheke, Tchade, Shede, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mudaye, Mocigin, Motchekin. Dialects: Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria but they are inherently intelligible. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Gudu

[gdu] 5,000 (1993). Adamawa State, Song LGA. Alternate names: Gudo, Gutu. Dialects: Kumbi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Guduf-Gava

[gdf] 55,918 (2000 WCD). Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly in Gava, Cikide, and Guduf. Alternate names: Gudupe, Afkabiye. Dialects: Cikide (Chikide), Guduf, Gava (Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa). Close to Glavda. Hedi speakers have 35% intelligibility of Guduf. Wolff (1971) separates Guduf from Gvoko and Glavda. Lexical similarity 56% with Hedi, 50% with Lamang and Mabas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

Gun

[guw] 258,804 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Lagos State, Badagry LGA. Alternate names: Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe. Dialects: Alada (Alada-Gbe), Asento, Gbekon, Gun (Gu, Egun, Goun), Phela, Savi, Weme, Seto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja . Gupa-Abawa

[gpa] 15,000 (1989). Population includes 10,000 or more Gupa, 5,000 Abawa. Niger State, Lapai LGA, around Gupa and Edzu villages. Dialects: Gupa, Abawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

Gurmana

[gvm] 3,000 (1989). Niger State, Shiroro LGA, Gurmana town and nearby hamlets. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana

Guruntum-Mbaaru

[grd] 15,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. Alternate names: Guruntum, Gurdung. Dialects: Dooka, Gar, Gayar, Karakara, Kuuku, Mbaaru. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum

Gvoko

[ngs] 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Population total all countries: 21,000. Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Gevoko, Ghboko, Gavoko, Kuvoko, Ngossi, Ngoshi, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngweshe-Ndaghan, Ngoshe Sama, Nggweshe. Dialects: A separate but related language to Glavda and Guduf. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

Gwa

[gwb] 979 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Dialects: Related to Lame. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Gwamhi-Wuri

[bga] 16,000 (2000). Kebbi State, Wasugu LGA, Danko-Maga area, and Niger State, Magama LGA, Dusai and Kwimu. The Gwamfawa are around Danko and the Wurawa around Maga. Migrants are in Niger State. Alternate names: Lyase, Lyase-Ne. Dialects: Gwamhi (Gwamfanci, Gwamfi Gwamfawa, Abaangi, Banga, Banganci, Bangawa), Wuri (Wuranci, Wurawa). The two dialects have slight lexical and tonal differences. Lexical similarity 57% with Puku-Geeri-Keri-Wipsi, 47% with Duka, 43% with Lela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka

Gwandara

[gwn] 27,349 (2000). Niger State, Suleija LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Kaduna State, Kachia LGA; Nasarawa State, Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, and Akwanga LGAs. Alternate names: Kwandara. Dialects: Gwandara Karashi, Gwandara Koro, Gwandara Southern (Kyan Kyar), Gwandara Eastern (Toni), Gwandara Gitata, Nimbia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

Gyem

[gye] 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Gyemawa, Gema, Gemawa, Gyam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Hasha

[ybj] 3,000 (1999 Blench). Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA, 3 villages: Hashasu, Kusu, and Bwora. Alternate names: Yashi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B

Hausa

[hau] 18,525,000 in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 24,162,000. Spoken as a first language in large areas of Sokoto, Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Bauchi, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi, and Gombe states. Spoken as a second language in the northern half of Nigeria. Also spoken in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Germany, Ghana, Niger, Sudan, Togo. Alternate names: Hausawa, Haoussa, Abakwariga, Mgbakpa, Habe, Kado. Dialects: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya, Sokoto, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa, Katsina, Arewa. Barikanchi is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is a pidgin or market Hausa. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

Hausa Sign Language

[hsl] Classification: Deaf sign language

Hide

[xed] 4,000 in Nigeria (2001 SIL). Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; along the Cameroon border, across from Tourou; part of one village. Alternate names: Hdi, Hedi, Turu-Hide, Tur, Turu, Tourou, Ftour, Xedi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang

Hõne

[juh] 7,000 (1999 Anne Storch). Population includes 6,250 in Gwana area, 750 in Pindiga area. Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (1999 Anne Storch). Gombe State, Akko LGA. One dialect is in Pindiga and adjacent villages (Tumu, Kashere, Futuk, Kaltanga), the other in Gwana and adjacent villages (Kasan Dare, Gobirawa, Katagum, Kwaya, Dizi, Digare, Jukon, Konan Kuka, Andamin). Dialects: Pindiga, Gwana. Gwana and Pindiga dialects are intelligible to each other's speakers with difficulty. Close to Wãpha, Jiba, Wapan, Jukun Takum, Jibu, but not intelligible with them. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun

Horom

[hoe] 1,500 (1998 Blench). Plateau State, Bokkos LGA. Alternate names: "Kaleri". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern

Huba

[hbb] 175,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Hong, Maiha, Gombi, and Mubi LGAs. Alternate names: Kilba, Chobba. Dialects: Luwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2

Hungworo

[nat] 20,000 (2003 SIL). Niger State, Rafi LGA, around Kagara and Maikujeri towns. Alternate names: Ngwoi, Nkwoi, Ngwe, Ingwo, Ingwe, Ungwe. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% to 52% with Kamuku dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Hun-Saare

[dud] 73,000 (1985 Patience Ahmed). Population includes 10,000 outside the traditional area. Kebbi State, Wasagu and Yauri LGAs; Niger State, Rijau LGA, and migrants farther south. Dialect centers are Rijau-Senjir, Dukku-Iri, Zente-Dogo, and Darengi. Alternate names: Duka, Dukawa, Dukwa, Dukanci, Dukanchi. Dialects: Eastern Duka (Hun, Et-Hun, Hune), Western Duka (Es-Saare). Lexical similarity 85% between Rijau and Dukku dialects; 63% Duka with Puku-Geeri-Keri-Wipsi, 50% with Lela, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka

Hwana

[hwo] 32,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, and some in Song and Hong LGAs. Alternate names: Hwona, Hona, Tuftera, Fiterya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern

Hya

[hya] Tukwri, Shike, Ligwe and Gameta villages. Alternate names: Ghye, Za. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

Hyam

[jab] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGAs. Alternate names: Ham, Hyamhum, Jabba, Jeba. Dialects: A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Hyamic

Ibani

[iby] 60,000 (1989 UBS). Rivers State, Bonny. Alternate names: Bonny, Ubani. Dialects: A member of Koin cluster within the Ijo cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari

Ibibio

[ibb] 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 (1998 B. Connell). Akwa Ibom State, Itu, Uyo, Etinan, Ikot Abasi, Ikono, Ekpe-Atai, Uruan, Onna, Nsit-Ubium, and Mkpat Enin LGAs. Dialects: Enyong, Central Ibibio, Itak, Nsit. Several dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik

Ibilo

[ibi] 5,000. Edo State, single town of Ibilo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora

Ibino

[ibn] 10,000 (1989 Faraclas). Akwa Ibom State, Uquo-Ibeno LGA. Alternate names: Ibeno, Ibuno. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibino

Ibuoro

[ibr] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Itu and Ikono LGAs. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

Iceve-Maci

[bec] 5,000 in Nigeria (1990). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Icheve, Ochebe, Ocheve, Oceve, Utse, Utser, Utseu. Dialects: Maci (Matchi, Oliti, Olithi, Olit, Kwaya, Oliti-Akwaya, Motom, Motomo), Bacheve (Becheve, Bechere, Beheve, Baceve). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Idere

[ide] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Itu LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Probably Central Lower Cross, related to Anaang. Close to Eki (B. Connell 1998). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo

Idesa

[ids] 5,693 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

Idoma

[idu] 600,000 (1991 UBS). Benue State, Otukpo and Okpokwu LGAs. Dialects: Idoma Central (Oturkpo, Akpoto), Idoma West, Idoma South (Igumale, Igwaale, Ijigbam), Okpogu. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

Idon

[idc] 5,000. Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Idong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

Idun

[ldb] 10,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Lungu, Ungu, Adong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro

Igala

[igl] 800,000 (1989 UBS). Kogi State, Ankpa, Idah, Dekina, and Bassa LGAs; Edo State, Oshimili LGA; Anambra State, Anambra LGA. Alternate names: Igara. Dialects: Ebu, Idah, Ankpa, Ogugu, Ibaji, Ife, Anyugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala

Igbo

[ibo] 18,000,000 (1999 WA). Abia State, Anambra State, Aguata, Anambra, Awka, Idemili, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi, and Onitsha LGAs; Enugu State, Awgu, Enugu, Ezeagu, Igo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze, Isi-Uzo, Nkanu, Nsukka, Udi, and Uzo-Uwani LGAs; Imo State; Rivers State, Ikwerre, Bonny, and Ahoada LGAs; Delta State, Oshimili, Aniocha, and Ndokwa LGAs; Akwa Ibom State, Ika LGA. The states where Igbo is spoken as the only or majority language are Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo. It is also spoken in the northeast of Delta State and the southeast of Rivers State, Oyigbo LGA and the Opobo part of Opobo-Nkoro LGA, and alongside Ibani in Bonny LGA. Alternate names: Ibo. Dialects: Owerri (Isuama), Onitsha, Umuahia, Orlu, Ngwa, Afikpo, Nsa, Oguta, Aniocha, Eche, Egbema, Oka (Awka), Bonny-Opobo, Mbaise, Nsuka, Ohuhu, Unwana. 30 dialects vary in inherent intelligibility. The standard literary form is developing based on the dialects of Owerri and Umuahia, omitting the nasality and aspiration found in those dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Igede

[ige] 250,000 (1991 UBS). Benue State, Oju, Otukpo, and Okpokwu LGAs; Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Igedde, Egede. Dialects: Ito, Oju (Central Igede), Worku, Gabu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

Iguta

[nar] 6,123 (1990). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Naraguta, Anaguta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Igwe

[igw] 47,845 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Ihievbe

[ihi] North and east of Afuze, Owan LGA, villages of Ihievbe Ogbe, Ebetse, and Iyakhora. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central

Ija-Zuba

[vki] Federal Capital Territory, south of Abuja, north of the Minna Suleja road. Alternate names: Koro Afiki, Koro Ija, Koro Zuba. Dialects: A dialect cluster. Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Different from Koro of Lafia, Begbere-Ejar, or Tanjijili. 'Koro' is used as a cover term for several languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified

Ijo, Southeast

[ijs] 71,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Population includes 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa. Bayelsa State, Brass LGA. Alternate names: Ijaw, Brass Ijo. Dialects: Nembe (Nimbe), Akassa (Akaha). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East

Ika

[ikk] 22,772 (2000 WCD). Delta State, Ika LGA. Dialects: A separate language in the Igbo language cluster. The dialect around Agbor, the administrative and commercial center, appears to be developing into a standard form. Further east and south from there, the varieties become more similar to Igbo (Report of the Committee on Languages of Midwestern State: 12). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Iko

[iki] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Abasi LGA, 3 villages. Dialects: Culturally they consider themselves Obolo, but they cannot use Obolo literature. The language is closer to other Lower Cross languages than to Obolo. Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Iko

Ikpeshi

[ikp] 5,317 (2000 WCD). Bendel State, Etsako LGA. Alternate names: Ikpeshe, Ekpeshe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Iku-Gora-Ankwa

[ikv] Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Iku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

Ikulu

[ikl] 50,000 (1998). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Ikolu, Ankulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

Ikwere

[ikw] 200,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Ikwerre, Port Harcourt, and Obio-Akpor LGAs. Alternate names: Ikwerre, Ikwerri. Dialects: Apani, Akpo-Mgbu-Tolu, Ogbakiri, Emowhua, Ndele, Elele, Omerelu, Egbedna, Aluu, Igwuruta, Ibaa, Isiokpo, Omagwna, Ubima, Ipo, Omudioga, Obio, Rumuji. A separate language in the Igbo language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Ilue

[ilv] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Oron LGA. Alternate names: Idua. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo,

Irigwe

[iri] 40,000 (1985 UBS). Plateau State, Bassa and Barakin Ladi LGAs; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Iregwe, Aregwe, Rigwe, Nnerigwe, Kwoll, Kwal, Miango, Nyango, Idafan, Kwan, Nkarigwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

Isekiri

[its] 510,000 (1991 UBS). Delta State, Warri, Bomadi, and Ethiope LGAs. Alternate names: Itsekiri, Ishekiri, Shekiri, Jekri, Chekiri, Iwere, Irhobo, Warri, Iselema-Otu, Selemo. Dialects: Close to Yoruba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Isoko

[iso] 423,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Delta State, Isoko and Ndokwa LGAs. Alternate names: "Igabo", "Sobo", "Biotu". Dialects: Ozoro, Ofagbe, Emede, Owe (Owhe), Elu, Aviara, Iyede, Imiv, Enhwe, Ume, Iwire (Igbide), Olomoro, Iyede-Ami, Unogboko, Itebiege, Uti, Iyowo, Ibiede, Oyede, Uzere, Irri (Iri) Ole (Oleh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

Ito

[itw] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Akamkpa LGA. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

Itu Mbon Uzo

[itm] 5,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Ikono and Itu LGAs. Alternate names: Itu Mbon Uso, Itu Mbuzo. Dialects: Listed separately in Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe

[atg] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Edo State, Etsako and Akoko-Edo LGAs, villages of Ate, Okpekpe and Okpella. Dialects: Ivbie North (Ibie North), Okpela (Okpella, Ukpella, Upella), Arhe (Atte, Ate). Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Iyayu

[iya] 24,651 (2000 WCD). Ondo State, one-quarter of Idoani town. Alternate names: Idoani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

Iyive

[uiv] 1,000 in Nigeria (1992 Crozier and Blench). Benue State, Kwande LGA, near Turan. Alternate names: Uive, Yiive, Ndir, Asumbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Izere

[fiz] 50,000 (1993 SIL). Southern dialects: Plateau State, Barikin Ladi LGA; Northern dialects: Plateau State, Jos LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA; and Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Izarek, Fizere, Fezere, Feserek, Afizarek, Afizare, Afusare, Jari, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Hill Jarawa, Jos-Zarazon. Dialects: Northwest Izere, Northeast Izere, South Izere, Ganang-Faishang. The Fobor dialect is prestigious. Northwest Izere subdialects: Fobor (Fobur) and Shere; Northeast Izere: Fedare (Zandi, Zendi), Jarawan Kogi (Maigemu), and Fursom (Fursum); South Izere: Forom (Ichen); Ganang and Faishang. Firan is a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

Izi-Ezaa-Ikwo-Mgbo

[izi] 593,000 (1973 SIL). Population includes 200,000 Izi, 180,000 Ezaa, 150,000 Ikwo, 63,000 Mgbo. Ebonyi State, Abakaliki, Ezza, Ohaozara, and Ishielu LGAs; Benue State, Okpokwu LGA. Dialects: Izi (Izzi), Ezaa (Eza), Ikwo, Mgbo (Ngbo). Dialect cluster within the Igbo language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Izon

[ijc] 1,000,000 (1989 Williamson). Population includes 100,000 Kolokuma (1991 UBS). 1,770,000 all Ijo languages. Bayelsa State, Yenagoa, Southern Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor,and Sagbama LGAs; Delta State, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGAs; Ondo State, Ilaje Ese-Odo LGAs; Ekiti State, Ikole LGA. Alternate names: Izo, Uzo, Ijo, Ijaw, Central-Western Ijo. Dialects: Arogbo, Furupagha, Egbema, West Olodiama, Oporoza (Gbaranmatu), Ogulagha, Iduwini, Ikibiri, Ogboin, West Tarakiri, Kabo(Kabowei), Kumbo(Kumbowei), Mein, Operemo, Tuomo, Ogbe Ijo, Gbarain, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekpetiama, Apoi, Koluama, Basan (Bassan), East Olodiama, East Tarakiri, Oyiakiri, Oporomo (Oporoma), Bumo (Boma). The Ijo (Ijaw) cluster is made up of seven separate languages. Izon has about 30 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo

Izora

[cbo] 4,816 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Chokobo, Cokobo, Cikobu, Chikobo, Cokobanci, Azora. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Janji

[jni] 1,150 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Bassa LGA. Alternate names: Anafejanzi, Jenji, Tijanji, Ajanji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Jara

[jaf] 46,251 (2000 WCD). Borno State, Biu and Kwaya-Kusar LGAs; Gombei State, Akko and Yamaltu-Deba LGAs. Alternate names: Jera. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western

Jarawa

[jar] 150,000 (1978 MARC). Population includes 20,000 Bankal, 19,000 Gingwak. Bauchi, Adamawa, and Plateau States. Alternate names: Jaranchi, Jar, Jara, Jarawan Kogi. Dialects: Bankal (Bankala, Baranci, Zhar), Ligri, Kanam, Bobar, Gingwak (Gwak, Jarawan Bununu, Jaracin Kasa). Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Jere

[jer] 64,850 (1998 CAPRO). Population includes 15,000 Buji (1998), 15,000 Gusu (1998), 30,000 Jere (1998), 4,000 Ribina (1996 CAPRO), 850 Gurrum (1936). Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Jeere, Jera. Dialects: Buji (Eboze, Anabeze), Gusu (Gusawa, Gussum, Gesawa, Guzawa, Isanga, Asanga, Anibau, Anosangobari), Jere (Jeriyawa, Ezelle, Azelle, Jengre), Ribina (Rebina, Bunu, Ibunu, Narabunu, Anorubuna, Gurrum, Anegorom). A dialect cluster. For Ezelle dialect, a speaker is 'Ozelle' or 'Bajere'; the speakers are 'Azelle' or 'Jarawa'. For Eboze dialect, a speaker is 'Unabeze', speakers are 'Anabeze'. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Jiba

[juo] 2,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Taraba State, Wukari and Karim Lamido LGAs; Plateau State, Langtang and Wase LGAs; Bauchi State, Alkaleri and Akko LGAs; villages north and west of Kalingo. Alternate names: Kona, Jukun Kona, Jibi, Jibe. Dialects: A member of the Kororofa language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa

Jibu

[jib] 30,000 (1997 SIL). Taraba State, Gashaka and Bali LGA. Alternate names: Jibawa, Jibanci. Dialects: Gayam, Garbabi, Galamjina. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun

Jilbe

[jie] 100 (1999 H. Tourneux). Borno State, Jilbe town, on the border of Cameroon across from the town of Dabanga. 1 village only. Alternate names: Zoulbou. Dialects: Speakers of Kotoko languages in Cameroon and Chad consistently report low intelligibility of Jilbe. Not the same as Zizilivakan. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1

Jimi

[jmi] 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Jimi village. Alternate names: Bi-Gimu. Dialects: Zumo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern

Jiru

[jrr] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Alternate names: Wiyap, Kir, Atak, Zhiru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo

Jju

[kaj] 300,000 (1988 SIL). Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGAs. Alternate names: Kaje, Kajji, Kache. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

Jorto

[jrt] 17,284 (2000). Plateau State, Shendam LGA, at Dokan Kasuwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

Ju

[juu] 900 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Ju village. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum

Jukun Takum

[jbu] Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, and Bali LGAs. Alternate names: Diyi, Njikum, Jukun. Dialects: Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun

Kaan

[ldl] 10,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Shellen, Song, and Numan LGAs. Alternate names: Libo, Libbo, Kan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo

Kadara

[kad] 40,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA; Niger State, Chanchaga LGA. Alternate names: Adara. Dialects: Kajuru (Ajure), Minna, Kachia, Iri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

Kag-Fer-Jiir-Koor-Ror-Us-Zuksun

[gel] 36,000 (1992 SIL). Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, Fakai District, with migrants farther south. Kur is also in Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA. Alternate names: Fakanci, Fakkanci, Puku-Geeri-Keri-Wipsi. Dialects: Kag (Puku, Fakanchi, Et-Kag), Jiir (Gelanchi, Et-Jiir), Kur (Kere, Kar, Keri-Ni, Kelli-Ni, Kelanchi, Kelinci), Zuksun (Zussun, Et-Zuksun), Ror (Et-Maror, Tudanchi, Er-Gwar), Fer (Fere. Et-Fer, Wipsi-Ni, Kukum), Us (Et-Us), Koor (Kulu). Kag, Ker, Jiir, and Fer speakers have 79% to 92% inherent intelligibility of Ror. Ror and Kag are the largest dialects, Koor and Us the smallest. Lexical similarity 81% to 97% among dialects, 63% with Duka, 50% with Lela, 57% with Gwamhi-Wuri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka

Kagoma

[kdm] 25,391 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Gwong, Gyong, Kwong, Agoma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

Kaivi

[kce] 2,323 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kaibi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Kakanda

[kka] 20,000 (1989 Blench). Niger State, Agaie and Lapai LGAs; Kwara State, Kogi LGA, and communities along the Niger River centered on Budã. Alternate names: Akanda, Hyabe, Adyaktye. Dialects: Budon Kakanda, Gbanmi-Sokun Kakanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

Kakihum

[kxe] 15,000 (1996). Northern Niger State. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

Kalabari

[ijn] 257,764 (1989 Jenewari). Rivers State, Degema, Asaritoru, and Port Harcourt LGAs. Dialects: Mutually intelligible with Bile (Bille), Okrika, and Ibani within East Ijo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari

Kam

[kdx] 5,000 (1993). Taraba State, Bali LGA, 2 villages between Mayo Kam and Garba Chede. Alternate names: Yimwom, Nyiwom, Nyingwom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kam

Kamantan

[kci] 10,000 (1972 Barrett). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Kamanton, Angan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Kami

[kmi] 5,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Niger State, Lapai LGA, Ebo town, and 11 villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

Kamo

[kcq] 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe State, Billiri, Kaltungo and Akko LGAs. Alternate names: Kamu, Nubama, Nyima, Ma. Dialects: Typologically closer to Awak (no singular-plural noun suffixes). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak

Kamwe

[hig] 300,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Michika LGA, in the Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Higi, Hiji, Higgi, Vacamwe. Dialects: Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), Sina, Futu, Tili Pte, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Mijilu, Modi, Humsi. Close to Psikye and Hya of Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

Kaningdon-Nindem

[kdp] 2,291 (1934). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Dialects: Kaningdom (Kaninkon, Kaningkwom, Kaningkon), Nindem (Inidem, Nidem). Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

Kanufi

[kni] 10,361 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Karshi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Kanuri, Central

[knc] 3,000,000 in Nigeria (1985 Gunnemark and Kenrick). Population total all countries: 3,425,138. Borno State, Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, Gwoza LGAs; Yobe State, Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Jigawa State, Hadejia LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Sudan. Alternate names: Yerwa Kanuri, Kanouri, Beriberi, Bornu, Kanoury. Dialects: Kaga (Kagama), Lare (Lere), Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Yerwa. Lukas says Kwayam is not understood by other Kanuri. All can understand the Maiduguri dialect. Closest to Manga Kanuri and Kanembu. Yerwa is the central dialect. Part of a dialect cluster that includes other Kanuri dialects and Kanembu in Chad. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri

Kanuri, Manga

[kby] 200,000 in Nigeria (1993). Mainly Yobe State, some in Jigawa and Bauchi states. Alternate names: Manga, Kanouri, Kanoury. Dialects: Dagara, Manga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri

Kapya

[klo] 200 (2004). Taraba State, Takum LGA, at Kapya. Dialects: Related to Kutep. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

Karekare

[kai] 150,000 to 200,000 (1993 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Gamawa and Misau LGAs; Yobe State, Fika and Nangere LGAs. Alternate names: Karaikarai, Karai Karai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri. Dialects: Jalalam (West Karekare), Birkai, Kwarta Mataci. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare

Kariya

[kil] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Kariya village near Miya town. Alternate names: Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Khana

[ogo] 200,000 (1989). Rivers State, Khana LGA; Akwa Ibom State, Oruk Anam LGA (only the village Wiisoe). Alternate names: Kana, Ogoni. Dialects: Yeghe, Norkhana, Ken-Khana, Boúe, Nyo-Kana, Babbe. Close to Gokana, Tee. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East

Kholok

[ktc] 2,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, near Didango. Alternate names: Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Kinuku

[kkd] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kinuka, Kinugu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Kiong

[kkm] 100 (2004). Ethnic population: 569 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. Alternate names: Akayon, Akoiyang, Okonyong, Okoyong, Iyoniyong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop Nearly extinct.

Kir-Balar

[kkr] 3,050 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kir Bengbet and Kir Bajang'le villages. Alternate names: Kir, Kirr. Dialects: Kir, Balar (Larbawa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom

Kirike

[okr] 248,000 (1995 UBS). Rivers State, Okrika, Port Harcourt, and Ogu-Bolo LGAs. Alternate names: Okrika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East, Ibani-Okrika-Kalabari

Koenoem

[kcs] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Kanam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

Kofa

[kso] Adamawa State, Song LGA, north of Betul road, north of Yola. Alternate names: Kota. Dialects: Reported to be a separate language from Bura-Pabir. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1

Kofyar

[kwl] 109,943 (2000). Plateau State, Qua'an Pan and Mangu LGAs; Nasarawa State, Lafia LGA. Dialects: Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwa'alang, Kwalla), Dimmuk (Dimuk, Doemak), Mirriam (Mernyang), Bwol (Bwal, Mbol), Gworam (Giverom, Goram), Jipal (Jepel, Jepal, Jibyal). Dialect cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

Kohumono

[bcs] 30,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Bahumono, Ohumono, Ediba, Humono, Ekumuru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono

Koma

[kmy] 32,000 in Nigeria (1989). Population total all countries: 35,000. Adamawa State, Ganye and Fufore LGAs, Koma Vomni, Alantika Mountains. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kuma. Dialects: Gomme (Damti, Koma Kampana, Panbe), Gomnome (Mbeya, Gimbe, Koma Kadam, Laame, Youtubo), Ndera (Vomni, Doome, Doobe). A language cluster. 3 subdialects: Koma Vomni, Koma Beiya, and Koma Damti. Ndera and Gomnome speakers barely understand each other, but both understand Gomme. Related to Mom Jango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere

Kono

[klk] 5,522 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Kona village. Alternate names: Konu, Kwono. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Korop

[krp] 10,248 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 17,686. Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ododop, Durop, Kurop. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop

Kpan

[kpk] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Wukari, Takum, and Sardauna LGAs, Kato Bagha, Wukari, Suntai, Gayan, Gindin Dutse, Likam. Alternate names: Yorda, Ibukwo, Kpwate, Hwaye, Hwaso, Nyatso, Kpanten, Ikpan, Abakan, Nyonyo. Dialects: Bissaula, Kumbo (Kpanzon), Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi), Apa, Kente (Kentu, Kyentu, Etkye), Eregba. Related to Icen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen

Kpasam

[pbn] 3,000. Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Kpasham town, on the Numan-Jalingo road. Alternate names: Passam, Kpasham, Nyisam, 'Balo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

Kudu-Camo

[kov] 42 (1990 Michael Bross). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. Alternate names: Kuda-Chamo, Kudawa. Dialects: Kudu (Kuda), Camo (Chamo). Related to Butu-Ningi. A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Nearly extinct.

Kugama

[kow] 5,000 (1995). Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. Alternate names: Kugamma, Wegam, Yamale, Yamalo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

Kugbo

[kes] 2,000 (1973 SIL). Rivers State, Brass LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo

Kukele

[kez] 95,000 (1989). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA; Ebonyi State, Abakaliki LGA; Benue State, Okpokwu and Oju LGAs. Alternate names: Ukele, Bakele. Dialects: Mtezi, Ugbala, Iteeji. Four dialects in the north, three in the south, besides those named. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele

Kulere

[kul] 15,570 (1990). Plateau State, Bokkos LGA. Alternate names: Tof, Korom Boye, Akandi, Akande, Kande. Dialects: Tof, Richa, Kamwai-Marhai. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

Kulung

[bbu] 15,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, at Balasa, Bambur, and Kirim; Wukari LGA at Gada Mayo. Alternate names: Bambur, Kuluno, Bakulung, Bakulu, Bakuli, Kulu, Kukulung, Wo, Wurkum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Kumba

[ksm] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. Alternate names: Sate, Yofo, Isaro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Kupa

[kug] 20,000 (1998 Blench). Kwara State, Kogi LGA, around Abugi. 52 villages. Classification:

Kurama

[krh] 40,284 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka and Ikara LGAs; Kano State, Tudun Waya LGA. Alternate names: Tikurami, Akurumi, Bagwama, Akurmi, Azumu, Bukurumi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Kushi

[kuh] 11,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs, Kushi village. Alternate names: Chong'e, Kushe, Goji. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Kutep

[kub] 44,588 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 45,988. Taraba State, Takum LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper, "Jompre", Ati. Dialects: Jenuwa, Lissam, Fikyu, Kunabe, Kentin. Fikyu has subdialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

Kutto

[kpa] 3,000 (1995). Bauchi State, Bajoga LGA; Borno State, Gujba LGA, 2 villages. Alternate names: Kupto, Kúttò. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Kuturmi

[khj] 10,521 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Kachia LGA. Alternate names: Ada. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

Kwa

[kwb] 7,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Gyakan and Kwa towns, near Munga. Alternate names: Kwah, Baa. Dialects: Gyakan, Kwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kwa

Kwaami

[ksq] 10,000 (1990). Bauchi State, Gombe LGA. Alternate names: Kwami, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwom, Komawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Kwak

[kwq] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Bùkwák. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified

Kyak

[bka] 5,000 (1995 Adelberger). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Alternate names: Bambuka, Nyakyak. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Kyenga

[tye] 4,000 in Nigeria (1995 Ross Jones SIM). Population total all countries: 5,000. Kebbi State, Geshuru, Kaele, Saufu, and Tuni villages, all west of Illo, and in the Boko villages of Maze, Samia, Baikinrua, and Pisa. Also spoken in Benin. Alternate names: Tyanga, Tienga, Tyenga, Kenga. Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Shanga, 38% to 40% with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

Labir

[jku] Ethnic population: 11,386 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. Alternate names: Jaku, Jakun, Jakanci. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Nearly extinct.

Laka

[lak] 5,000 (1995). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa State, Yola LGA. Alternate names: Lakka, Lau, Lao Habe, Godogodo. Dialects: Related to Karang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified

Lala-Roba

[lla] 46,000 (1993). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA, and Borno State. Alternate names: Gworam. Dialects: Lala (Lalla), Roba (Robba), Ebode. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba

Lamang

[hia] 40,000 (1993). Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. Alternate names: Laamang, Gbuhwe, Waha. Dialects: North Laamang, Central Laamang, South Laamang. Speakers have 37% intelligibility of Mabas, 31% of Hedi. Subdialects of North Lamang: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; of Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; of South Lamang: Ghudavan. Lexical similarity 64% with Hedi and Mabas, 50% with Gevoko. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang

Lame

[bma] 10,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Lame District. Dialects: Ruhu (Rufu, Rufawa), Mbaru (Bambaro, Bombaro, Bomberawa, Bunberawa, Bambara, Bamburo), Gura (Tugura, Agari, Agbiri). Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Lamja-Dengsa-Tola

[ldh] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, around Ganglamja (Lamja Mt.), near the road between Mayo Belwa and Tola. 13 villages of Lamja and Dengsa. The central town of the Lamja is Ganglamja. The Dengsa live south of the Lamja. Dialects: Lamja, Dengsa, Tola. A dialect cluster. The three dialects are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. They may not be sufficiently distinct from Samba Daka to be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid

Lamnso

[lns] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, scattered in settlements sometimes mixed with speakers of other languages. Alternate names: Nsho', Lamso, Lamnsok, Banso, Banso', Bansaw, Panso, Nso, Nso', Nsaw. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East

Laru

[lan] 5,000 (1995 Jones). Niger State, Borgu LGA, on the banks of the Niger River, Karabonde, Monnai, Leshigbe, Luma, Sansanni, Shagunu villages. Alternate names: Larawa, Laranchi, Laro. Classification:

Leelau

[ldk] 5,000 (1995 Adelberger). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, between Bambuka and Karim-Lamido town, near Lake Mungah. Alternate names: Lelau, Lelo, Munga Lelau, Munga. Dialects: A member of the Munga dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Legbo

[agb] 60,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA; Ebonyi State, Afikpo LGA. Alternate names: Agbo, Gbo, Igbo, Imaban, Itigidi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo

Lemoro

[ldj] 10,000 (1998 CAPRO). Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Limoro, Limorro, Emoro, Anemoro, Anowuru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Lenyima

[ldg] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Anyima, Inyima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo

Lere

[gnh] Ethnic population: 16,328. Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Dialects: Si (Rishuwa, Kauru, Kuzamani), Gana, Takaya (Taura). Language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Nearly extinct.

Leyigha

[ayi] 10,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Asiga, Assiga, Ayigha, Ayiga, Yigha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo

Lijili

[mgi] 50,000 (1985 UBS). Nasarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs. Alternate names: Ligili, Mijili, Migili, Megili, Koro Lafia, Koro of Lafia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern

Limbum

[lmp] Few speakers in Nigeria (1992 Crozier and Blench). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mambila uplands. Alternate names: Wimbum, Kambu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

Lokaa

[yaz] 120,000 (1989). Cross River State, Obubra LGA. Alternate names: Yakurr, Yakö, Loko, Loke, Luko. Dialects: Ugep, Nkpam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

Longuda

[lnu] 32,000 (1973 SIL). Adamawa State, Guyuk LGA; Bauchi State, Balanga LGA. Alternate names: Nunguda, Nunguraba, Nungura, Languda, Longura. Dialects: Nya Ceriya (Banjiram, Cirimba), Nya Gwanda (Nyuwar, Gwandaba), Nya Guyuwa (Guyuk, Plain, Turuba), Nya Dele (Jessu), Nya Tariya (Taraba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda

Loo

[ldo] 8,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA; Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road. Alternate names: Lo, Loh, Shunhu, Shungo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Lopa

[lop] 5,000 (1996 Blench). Niger State, Borgu LGA, Amboshidi and Tungan Bori, islands in the Niger River; Kebbi State, Yauri LGA. Alternate names: Lopawa, Lupa, Kirikjir, Djiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake

Lubila

[kcc] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, at Ojo Nkomba and Ojo Akangba. Alternate names: Lubilo, Kabila, Kabire, Ojor, Ofor. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

Lufu

[ldq] Ethnic population: 2,000 to 3,000 (1992). Taraba State, Takum LGA, Lufu, and Lufu Jauro. Classification: Unclassified Nearly extinct.

Luri

[ldd] 30 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kayarda and Luri villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West Nearly extinct.

Maaka

[mew] 10,000 (1993). Borno State, Gujba LGA, Bara town and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Maha, Maka, Maga, Magha. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Mada

[mda] 100,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau State, Akwanga and Keffi LGAs; Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA. Alternate names: Madda, Yidda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Mafa

[maf] 4,907 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Borno State, Gwoza LGA. Alternate names: "Matakam", Natakan, Bulahai, Bula. Dialects: Mafa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

Mághdì

[gmd] 2,000 (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, a section of the Widala. Alternate names: Tala, Widala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Mak

[pbl] 5,693 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Banbuka to Karim-Lamido road. Alternate names: Panyam, Panya, Leemak, Lemak, Zo. Dialects: Panya, Zo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Mala

[ruy] 6,627 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Rumaya, Rumaiya, Amala, Tumala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Mama

[mma] 20,000 (1973 SIL). Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Kantana, Kwarra. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Mambila, Nigeria

[mzk] 99,000 (1993). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Mambilla, Mabila, Mambere, Nor, Nor Tagbo, Lagubi, Tongbo, Bang. Dialects: Barup. Nearly every village has a separate dialect, forming a chain. Dialect centers are Bang, Dorofi, Gembu, Hainari, Kabri, Mayo Ndaga, Mbamnga, Tamien, Tepo, Warwar. Close to Mambila of Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila

Mangas

[zns] 100 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Mangas town. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom

Marghi Central

[mrt] 135,000 in Marghi Central, Marghi South, and Putai languages (1999). Borno State, Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs. Alternate names: Marghi, Margi. Dialects: Lassa (Babal), Gulak (Dzerngu), Madube (Gwara), Mulgwe (Malgwa), Wurga. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2

Marghi South

[mfm] Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs. Dialects: Wamdiu, Hildi. Marghi South, Marghi Central, and Putai form a language cluster. Hoffman (1963) relates Marghi South to Huba rather than to Margi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2

Mashi

[jms] 1,000. Taraba State, near Takum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

Mbe

[mfo] 14,300 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Western Mbube, Ketuen. Dialects: Idum, Ikumtale, Odaje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbe

Mbembe, Cross River

[mfn] 100,000 (1982 UBS). Cross River State, Obubra and Ikom LGAs; Anambra State, Abakaliki LGA. Alternate names: Okam, Oderiga, Wakande, Ifunubwa, Ekokoma, Ofunobwam. Dialects: Okom (Eghom, Ohana-Onyen), Apiapum, Adun, Osopong (Osophong, Ezopong), Ofombonga (Ewumbonga), Ofonokpan, Ekama (Ekamu), Oferikpe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe

Mbembe, Tigon

[nza] 20,000 in Nigeria (1987). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kurmi District. Alternate names: Akonto, Akwanto, Tigon, Tigong, Tigim, Tukun, Noale. Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Nama (Dama, Namu, Nzare, Kporo, Eneeme). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe

Mboi

[moi] 19,000 (1992). Adamawa State, Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGAs. Alternate names: Mboire, Mboyi, Gena. Dialects: Banga, Mboi, Handa. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi

Mbongno

[bgu] 3,000 in Nigeria (1999 Blench and Connell). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kakara town. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Bungnu, Bunu, Bungun, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Kamkam. Dialects: Several minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila

Mbula-Bwazza

[mbu] 40,558 (2000 WCD). Population includes 10,000 Bwazza, 20,000 Tambo, 5,000 to 10,000 Mbula. Adamawa State, Numan, Guyuk, Song, Demsa LGAs. Dialects: Bwazza (Bwaza, Bwa'za, Bare, Bere, Tambo), Mbula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Mburku

[bbt] 12,000 (2000). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. Alternate names: Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Kariya Wuufu. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Mingang Doso

[mko] 3,000 (1995 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, 15 km east of Karim Lamido town. 1 village and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Munga Doso, Ngwai Mungàn, Doso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Miship

[mjs] 6,000 (1976 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin, Mangu, Shendam LGAs. Alternate names: Chip, Cip, Ship. Dialects: Doka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

Miya

[mkf] 30,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Miya town. Alternate names: Miyawa, Muya. Dialects: Gala, Faishang, Fursum, Demshin, Federe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Mom Jango

[ver] 104,275 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 110,798. Adamawa State, Yola and Fufore LGAs, Verre hills. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Vere, Verre, Were, Kobo. Dialects: Mom Jango, Momi (Ziri). Mom Jango and Momi are probably separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere

Montol

[mtl] 21,858 (1990). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Alternate names: Montal, Baltap, Teel. Dialects: Montol, Baltap-Lalin. Related to Tal. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

Moo

[gwg] 5,000 (1998). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off the Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road, close to Gomu Mountain. Alternate names: Gwomu, Gwomo, Gwom, Gomu, Ngwaa Móò, Yáá Mòò. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Mumuye

[mzm] 400,000 (1993 SIL). Taraba State, Jalingo, Zing, Karim Lamido, Yorro, Bali LGAs; Adamawa State, Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGAs. Alternate names: Yoro. Dialects: Zinna, Dong, Yoro, Lankaviri, Gola (Bajama), Gongla, Kasaa, Saawa, Jalingo, Nyaaja, Jeng, Gnoore, Yaa, Sagbee, Shaari, Kugong, Mang, Kwaji, Meeka, Yakoko. Lankaviri dialect is sufficiently different from Zing to need separate literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Mundat

[mmf] 1,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Mundat village near Sha. Dialects: Close to Sha and Karfa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

Mvanip

[mcj] 100 (1999 Connell and Blench). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, 25% of Zongo Ajiya and related hamlets in the northwest of the Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Mvanöp, Mvanon, Mvanlip, Mvano, Magu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila

Mwaghavul

[sur] 295,000 (1993 SIL). Plateau State, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: Sura. Dialects: Mupun (Mapan, Mapun), Panyam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

Nde-Gbite

[ned] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Biti, Bötö. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified

Nde-Nsele-Nta

[ndd] 19,500 (1987). Population includes 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nsa. Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Dialects: Nde (Ekamtulufu, Mbenkpe, Udom, Mbofon, Befon), Nsele, Nta (Atam, Afunatam). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Ndoe

[nbb] 7,344 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Ikom LGA. Dialects: Ekparabong (Akparabong), Balep (Anep, Anyep). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Ndoola

[ndr] 60,449 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 62,569. Taraba State, Bali, Gashaka, Sardauna LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Ndoro, Nundoro, Njoyame, Ndola. Dialects: There are at least two distinct dialects, those on and at the foot of the Mambila Plateau and those around Baissa, which seem to be similar to Serti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro

Ndun

[nfd] 3,000 (2003 Blench). Kaduna State, southwest of Fadan Karshe, villages of Ankpong, Anfufalim, Ngbok, Ankara, Banyeng, Ungwar Rimi. Alternate names: Nandu, Indun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central

Ndunda

[nuh] 300 to 400 (1999 Blench and Connell). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, near Mvanip, 5 km from Yerimaru, past Kakara on the tea estate road, northwest of Gembu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila

Ngamo

[nbh] 60,000 (1993). Yobe State, Fika LGA; Gambe State, Nafada-Bajoga LGA. Alternate names: Ngamawa, Gamo, Gamawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Ngas

[anc] 400,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGAs. Alternate names: Angas, Kerang, Karang. Dialects: Hill Angas, Plain Angas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

Nggwahyi

[ngx] 2,000 (1995). Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. Alternate names: Ngwaxi, Ngwohi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2

Ngizim

[ngi] 80,000 (1993). Yobe State, Damaturu LGA. Alternate names: Ngizmawa, Ngezzim. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper

Ngwaba

[ngw] 10,000 (1993 CAPRO). Adamawa State, Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. 2 villages. Alternate names: Gombi, Goba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Nigerian Sign Language

[nsi] Classification: Deaf sign language

Ningye

[nns] 3,985 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA, Ningeshen Kurmi village and 3 small settlements: Akwankwan, Kobin, and Ningeshen Dutse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

Ninzo

[nin] 35,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Ninzam, Nunzo, Gbhu D Amar Randfa, Amar Tita, Ancha, Incha, Kwasu, Akiza, Sambe, Fadan Wate, Hate. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Njerep

[njr] 6 (2000 B. Connell). Southeast, near the Mambila. Not used in Cameroon any longer. Alternate names: Njerup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup Nearly extinct.

Nkari

[nkz] 5,000 (1998 B. Connell). Akwa Ibom State, Ikono LGA. Dialects: Formerly thought to be a dialect of Ibibio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

Nkem-Nkum

[isi] 34,500 (1987 Asinya). Population includes 18,000 Nkem, 16,500 Nkum. Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Dialects: Nkem (Nkim, Ogoja, Ishibori, Isibiri, Ogboja), Nkum. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Nkoroo

[nkx] 4,550 (1989 UBS). Rivers State, Opobo-Nkoro LGA. Alternate names: Nkoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East Nkoroo

Nkukoli

[nbo] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, at the juncture of Ikom, Obubra and Akamkpa LGAs, Iko Ekperem Development Area. Alternate names: Lokoli, Lokukoli, Nkokolle, Ekuri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

Nnam

[nbp] 3,000 (1987 Asinya). Cross River State, Ikom and Ogoja LGAs. Alternate names: Ndem. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

Nshi

[nsc] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nkiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified

Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu

[nbr] 30,000 (2003 Blench). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Sanga. Dialects: Nunku, Numana (Nimana), Gbantu (Gwantu, Gwanto), Numbu. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

Nungu

[rin] 50,000 (1999). Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. Alternate names: Rindre, Rendre, Rindiri, Lindiri. Dialects: Rindre, Gudi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ninzic

Nupe-Nupe-Tako

[nup] 800,000 (1990). Niger State, Mariga, Gbako, Agaie, and Lapai LGAs; Kwara State, Edu LGA; KoGi State, Kogi LGA; Federal Capital Territory. Alternate names: Nupe, Nufawa, Nupeci, Nupenchi, Nupecidji, Nupencizi. Dialects: Nupe Central (Nife, Anupe, Nupecizi, Nupencizi, Ampeyi, Anupecwayi, Anuperi, Tapa, Tappah, Takpa), Nupe Tako (Bassa Nge). Nupe Central has become the literary norm. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

Nyam

[nmi] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, at Andami village. 1 village. Alternate names: Nyambolo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Nyeng

[nfg] 2,000 (2003 Blench). Kaduna State, Adu village. Alternate names: Ningon, Hanyeng. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central

Nyong

[muo] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, 6 villages. Alternate names: Mumbake, Mubako, Nyongnepa, Nyoking, Daganyonga, Teteka, Chukkol, Yapeli, Peti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko

Nzanyi

[nja] 77,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 86,000. Adamawa State, Maiha LGA. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Njanyi, Nzangi, Njai, Njeny, Zani, Zany, Jeng, Jenge, Njei, Njeing, Kobotshi. Dialects: Paka, Rogede, Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi, Lovi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Obanliku

[bzy] 65,000 (1989 Faraclas). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Alternate names: Abanliku. Dialects: Bebi, Busi, Basang, Bisu (Gayi), Bishiri. Dialect cluster. Related to Alege. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

Obolo

[ann] 200,000 (1996 National Population Commission). Rivers State, Andoni LGA; Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Abasi LGA, islands off southern coast. Bounded on the east and northeast by the Ibibio, on the northwest by the Ogoni, on the west by the Ibani, on the south by the Atlantic Ocean. Alternate names: Andoni, Andone, Andonni. Dialects: Ngo, Ataba, Unyeada, Okoroete, Ibot Obolo. Ngo (in the Central area) is the prestige dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo

Obulom

[obu] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Rivers State, Port Harcourt LGA, Abuloma town. Alternate names: Abuloma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

Odual

[odu] 18,000 (1989). Rivers State, Abua-Odual LGA. Alternate names: Saka. Dialects: Arughunya, Adibom. Lexical similarity 70% with Abua (closest). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual

Odut

[oda] 20 (1980s, from Blench 2000). Cross River State, Odukpani LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop Nearly extinct.

Ogbah

[ogc] 170,000 (1993 A. Ahiamadu). Rivers State, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, northern Niger Delta. Alternate names: Ogba. Dialects: Egnih, Igburu-Usomini. A member of the Igbo language cluster. Lexical similarity 81% to 94% among dialects; Ogbah has 45% lexical similarity with Ndoni, 41% with Egbema, 32% with Ikwere, 23% with Ekpeye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Ogbia

[ogb] 200,000 (1989). Bayelsa State, Brass LGA. Alternate names: Ogbinya. Dialects: Agholo (Kolo), Oloibiri, Anyama. Dialect cluster but all inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

Ogbogolo

[ogg] 10,000 (1995). Rivers State, Ahoada LGA, 1 town. Alternate names: Obogolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

Ogbronuagum

[ogu] 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Rivers State, Degema LGA, Bukuma village near Buguma. Alternate names: Bukuma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

Okobo

[okb] 50,000 (1991 Connell). Akwa Ibom State, Okobo LGA. Dialects: Possibly two dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Okobo

Okodia

[okd] 3,600 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. Alternate names: Okordia, Akita. Dialects: Not fully intelligible with Biseni or other Ijo languages. Speakers tend to learn Kolokuma for wider communication. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo

Oko-Eni-Osayen

[oks] 10,000 (1989 Williamson). Population includes 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni. Kogi State, Okene LGA, Ogori and Magongo towns, ten miles south southwest of Okene. Alternate names: Oko, Ogori-Magongo. Dialects: Oko (Ogori, Uku), Osayen (Magongo, Osanyin), Eni. A dialect cluster. It seems to be equally distantly related to Yoruba, Ebira, Edo, Igbo, and Idoma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Oko

Okpamheri

[opa] 30,000 (1973 SIL). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Alternate names: Opameri. Dialects: Okulosho (Okurosho), Western Okpamheri, Emhalhe (Emarle, Somorika, Semolika). Subdialects of Okulosho: Ojirami (Eekunu), Dagbala (Dangbala), Oja (Oza), Makeke (Uuma), Oma. Subdialects of Western Okpamheri: Ekpe, Bekuma, Lankpese (Lampese, Lankpeshi), Imoga (Imorga, Uma), Eko (Ekon, Ekor), Ikaran-Oke (Ikeram-Oke), Ebunn-Oke, Ikaran-Ele (Ikeran-Ile), Ebunn-Ugbo, Ikpesa, Igbo-Ola-Sale (Ugboshi-Sale), Aiyegunle (Oshi), Igbo-Ola-Oke (Ugboshi-Oke), Onumo (Onumu), Ogugu, Ogbe-Sale, Ogbe-Oke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

Okpe

[oke] 25,425 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Okpe LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

Okpe

[okx] 8,700 (2004). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Oloma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

Oloma

[olm] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Dialects: Related to Okpe-Idesa-Akuku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

Olulumo-Ikom

[iko] 30,000 (1989 Faraclas). Population includes 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom. Cross River State, Ikom LGA. May also be in Cameroon. Alternate names: Lulumo. Dialects: Okuni, Olulumo, Ikom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom

Oring

[org] 75,000 (1989). Population includes 12,300 Ufia, 3,000 Effium, 6,350 Okpoto (1955 R. G. Armstrong). Benue State, Okpokwu LGA; Ebonyi State, Ishielu LGA. Alternate names: Orri, Orrin, Orringorrin, Koring. Dialects: Okpoto, Ufia (Utonkon), Ufiom (Effium). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring

Oro

[orx] 75,000 (1989). Akwa-Ibom State, Oron LGA. Alternate names: Oron. Dialects: Some dialect variation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro

Oruma

[orr] 5,000 (1995). Bayelsa State, Ogbia LGA, towns of Oruma and Ibelebiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo

Ososo

[oso] 19,038 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Otank

[uta] 3,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu LGA; Benue State, Kwande LGA. Alternate names: Otanga, Utanga, Utange, Otang, Utank. Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Tiv, 60% with Iceve-Maci, 50% with Evant, 40% with Mesaka and Eman. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Pa'a

[pqa] 8,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Ningi and Bauchi LGAs. Alternate names: Afawa, Afanci, Pala, Pa'awa, Fa'awa, Foni, Afa, Fucaka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Pangseng

[pgs] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Dialects: Pangseng, Komo, Jega. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Pe

[pai] 4,000 (2003 Blench). Plateau State, Pankshin LGA, 17 km south of the main road from Jos-Amper, turning a few kilometers before Amper. 7 villages. Alternate names: Dalong, Pai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

Peere

[pfe] Few speakers in Nigeria. Adamawa State, Ganye LGA. Alternate names: Pere, Peer, Pare, Potopo, Potopore, Patapori, Kutin, Koutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Kotopo, Kotofo, Kotpojo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin

Pero

[pip] 25,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA, Gwandum, Gundalf, Kushi, Yapito, Burak and Bangunji. Alternate names: Pipero, Filiya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Pidgin

[pcm] Southern states and in Sabon Garis of the northern states, coastal and urban areas. Alternate names: Nigerian Creole English, Nigerian Pidgin English. Dialects: Lagos Pidgin, Delta Pidgin, Cross River Pidgin, Benin Pidgin. No unified standard. The dialects listed may be very different from each other. Partially intelligible with Krio of Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio

Piti

[pcn] 5,534 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Pitti, Abisi, Bisi. Dialects: Riban (Ribam). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam

Piya-Kwonci

[piy] 5,000 (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; and some in Bauchi State. 21 villages or more. Alternate names: Piya, Pia, Pitiko, Wurkum, Ambandi. Dialects: Piya, Kwonci. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Polci

[plj] 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). Population includes 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993). Bauchi State, Dass, Toro, and Bauchi LGAs. Alternate names: Palci, Palchi, Polchi. Dialects: Zul (Mbarmi, Barma), Baram (Mbaram, Barang), Dir (Diir, Dra, Baram Dutse), Buli, Langas (Nyamzax, Lundur), Polci (Posa, Polshi, Palci). Polci dialect cluster in Barawa language cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

Pongu

[png] 30,000 (2003 SIL). Niger State, Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, widespread small villages between Kusheriki in the north, Zungeru in the south, and along the new road to the southwest, with center in Sabon Gari Pangu. Bordered by the Kamuku, Ngwoi, Ura, Basa-Kaduna, Baushi, Basa-Gurmana, Gurmana, and Gbari. Small numbers are in Kaduna, Minna, Kontagora, and Bida towns. Alternate names: Pongo, Pangu, Arringeu, Tarya. Dialects: Akwa, Asebi, Awege, Azhiga, Cagere, Camajere, Cansu, Caundu, Ubwebwe. Dialect variation is slight, with 94% to 99% similarity. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Psikye

[kvj] 12,000 in Nigeria (1992). Adamawa State, north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in the Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Kapsiki, Kamsiki, Ptsake. Dialects: Psikye (Kapsiki, Kamu), Zlenge, Wula (Oula, Ula-Xangku, Lying). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

Putai

[mfl] 50. Borno State, Damboa LGA. Alternate names: Marghi West. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Nearly extinct.

Putukwam

[afe] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Population includes 3,500 Afrike. Cross River State, Obudu and Ogoja LGAs. Alternate names: Utugwang, Mbe Afal, Mbube Eastern. Dialects: Utugwang (Otukwang), Okorogung, Okorotung, Afrike (Aferike), Obe (Mbe East), Oboso. Member of the Obe cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

Pyapun

[pcw] 17,284 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Shendam LGA. Dialects: Related to Tal and Montol. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

Rang

[rax] Taraba State, Zing LGA. Dialects: Close to Mumuye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Reshe

[res] 44,000 (1993 SIL). Kebbi State, Yauri LGA; Niger State, Borgu LGA; southern Kebbi State, western Niger State, banks of the Niger River, north of Busa. Alternate names: Tsureshe, Tsureja, Bareshe, Gunga, Gungawa, Gunganchi, Yaurawa. Dialects: Blench says it is the most divergent of the Western Kainji languages. Lexical similarity 43% with Lopa, 33% with Laru, 20% with Duka, 11% with Kamabari (Salka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Reshe

Rogo

[rod] Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGAs, around Ucanja town, 30 km northwest of Kagara; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Urogo, Burogo, Ucanja Kamuku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Ron

[cla] 115,000 (1995). Population includes 20,000 Shagawu. Plateau State, Bokkos, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs. Alternate names: "Challa", "Chala". Dialects: Bokkos (Alis I Run), Daffo-Butura (Lis Ma Run), Monguna (Shagawu, Shagau, Nafunfia, Maleni). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

Ruma

[ruz] 5,090 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Ruruma, Rurama, Turama, Bagwama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Samba Daka

[ccg] 107,000 (2000). Taraba State, Gashaka, Jalingo, Bali, Zing LGAs, and Adamawa State, Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGAs. Alternate names: Chamba Daka, Tsamba, Tchamba, Sama, Samba, Jama, Daka, Dakka, Dekka, Nakanyare, Deng, Tikk. Dialects: Samba Daka, Samba Jangani, Samba Nnakenyare, Samba of Mapeo, Taram, Dirim. A dialect cluster. Together with Lamja-Dengsa-Tola it may form a language cluster. Close to Dirim. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid

Samba Leko

[ndi] 62,020 in Nigeria (2000 WCD). Adamawa State, Ganye, Fufore, Wukari, and Takum LGAs. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Chamba Leko, Samba Leeko, Samba, Ndi, Lekon, Lego, Leko, Suntai. Dialects: Close to Kolbila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko

Sanga

[xsn] 20,142 (2000 WCD). Population includes 1,600 Bujiyel (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Isanga, Asanga. Dialects: Bujiyel. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Sasaru

[sxs] 12,456 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Saya

[say] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Population includes 7,000 Sigdi (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. Alternate names: Sayawa, Seya, Seyawa, Sayanci, Seiyara, Sayara. Dialects: Sigidi (Sugudi, Sigdi, Segiddi), Zaar (Vikzar, Vigzar, Kal, Gambar Leere, Lusa). Saya dialect cluster in Barawa language cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

Sha

[scw] 3,000 (1998 SIL). Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Sha District. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

Shakara

[nfk] 3,000 (2003 Blench). Kaduna State, 13 villages. Alternate names: Isakara, Tari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central

Shall-Zwall

[sha] 8,900 (2004). Bauchi State, Dass LGA. Dialects: Shall (Shal), Zwall. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic

Shamang

[xsh] Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGAs. Alternate names: Samban, Samang. Dialects: Related to Hyam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

Shama-Sambuga

[sqa] 5,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Alternate names: Tushama, Bushama. Dialects: Shama, Sambuga. Lexical similarity 64% to 66% with the three Kamuku dialects, 69% with Hungworo, 52% with Eastern Acipa, 16% to 17% with Western Acipa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

Shanga

[sho] 5,000 (1995). Kebbi State between Kaoje and Yauri, on both sides of the Niger River, but especially on the north bank; Gante, Lafugu, Zaria, Besse, Shanga, Dugu Raha, Dugu Tsofo, Bakin Turu villages. Alternate names: Shangawa, Shonga, Shongawa. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity 70% with Tyenga, 38% to 40% lexical similarity with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa

Shau

[sqh] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Shau and Mana villages. Alternate names: Sho, Lìsháù. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Nearly extinct.

Sheni

[scv] 200 (1925). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Shani, Shaini. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

Shiki

[gua] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Gubi and Guru towns north of Bauchi town. Alternate names: Gubi, Guba, Gubawa, Mashiki. Dialects: Gubi, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

Shoo-Minda-Nye

[bcv] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, villages on the banks of the Benue River. Dialects: Shoo (Banda, Bandawa), Minda (Jinleri), Nye (Kunini). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified

Shuwa-Zamani

[ksa] 1,000 (1973 SIL). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Alternate names: Kuzamani, Rishuwa, Kauru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Siri

[sir] Ethnic population: 3,234 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. Alternate names: Sirawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Somyev

[kgt] 15 to 20 (2000 B. Connell). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kila Yang, Njike, Kuma, Jabu, Kikau, and Mayo Daga towns. Apparently extinct in Cameroon. Alternate names: Somyewe, Kila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila Nearly extinct.

Sorko

[bze] Niger, Kwara, and Kebbi states, Lake Kainji. Alternate names: Sorogama, Corogama, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Jenama, Nononke, "Boso" Bozo, Jenaama Bozo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama

Sukur

[syk] 14,779 (1992). Northern tip of Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Mandara Mountains. Alternate names: Sugur, Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6

Sur

[tdl] 5,000 (1998 Blench). Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA; Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Tapshin, Tapshinawa, Suru, Myet, Nsur, Dishili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

Surubu

[sde] 7,173 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Srubu, Fiti, Skrubu, Zurubu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Tal

[tal] 10,000 (1973 SIL). Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Amtul, Kwabzak. Dialects: Related to Montol, Goemai, Pyapun, Koenoem. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

Tala

[tak] 1,000 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kuka and Talan Kasa villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum

Tamajaq, Tawallammat

[ttq] Few speakers in Nigeria. A few villages in the far northwest in Sokoto State. Alternate names: Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tuareg, Buzu, Azbinawa. Dialects: Ioullemmeden. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern

Tambas

[tdk] 3,000 (2001 Blench). Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. Alternate names: Tambes, Tembis. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer

Tangale

[tan] 130,000 (1995 CAPRO). Gombe State, Billiri, Kaltungo, Akko, and Balanga LGAs. Alternate names: Tangle. Dialects: Kaltungo, Biliri, Shongom, Ture. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

Tanjijili

[uji] 8,540 (2000 WCD). Niger State, Chanchaga and Suleija LGAs, on the road from Minna to Abuja at Kafin Koro, about 10 villages. Alternate names: Jijili, Ujijili, Koro Funtu of Kafin Koro, Koro Funtu of Minna, Koro of Shakoyi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern

Tarok

[yer] 300,000 (1998 Blench). Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Langtang LGAs; Gongola State, Wukari LGA. Alternate names: Yergam, Yergum, Appa. Dialects: Izini (Hill Tarok), Itarok (Plain Tarok), Selyer, Itarok Oga Asa, Igyang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

Tedaga

[tuq] 2,000 in Nigeria (1990 Blench). Borno State, northeastern LGAs, a few villages. Dialects: Kecherda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu

Tee

[tkq] Rivers State, Tai LGA. Alternate names: Tai. Dialects: Previously regarded as a dialect of Khana. Has a number of sounds not found in Khana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East

Teme

[tdo] 4,000 (1995). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, along the banks of the Mayo Belwa River. Alternate names: Tema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Tera

[ttr] 100,620 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Yamaltu-Deba LGA; Borno State, Kwayakusar LGA. Dialects: Nyimatli (Nyemathi, Yamaltu, Nimalto, Nyimatali), Pidlimdi (Hina, Hinna, Ghuna, Ghena), Bura Kokura. Dialect cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western

Tha

[thy] 1,000 (1998 Kleinewillinghöfer). Taraba State, near Lau. Alternate names: Joole Manga, Kapawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

Tita

[tdq] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Taraba State, Jalingo LGA, at Hoai Petel. Alternate names: Hoai Petel. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo

Tiv

[tiv] 2,212,000 in Nigeria (1991 UBS). Benue State, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGAs; Plateau State, Lafia LGA; Taraba State, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs. A few in Cameroon. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: "Munshi". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

Toro

[tdv] 3,928 (2000 WCD). Nasarawa State, Akwanga LGA, northeast of Wamba, Turkwam village. Alternate names: Turkwam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau

Tsikimba

[kdl] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Auna and Wara areas, just west of Kainji Lake on the Niger River. Alternate names: Agaushi, Auna, Kimba, Akimba, Kambari, Kamberri, Kamberchi. Dialects: Agaunshe, Ashen. A member of the Kambari cluster, which includes Tsishingini and Cishingini. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

Tsishingini

[tsw] 100,000 (2004 SIL). Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Salka area. Alternate names: Kambari, Kamberri, Kamberchi, Salka, Ashingini. Dialects: Ibeto. A member of the Kambari language cluster, which includes Cishingini and Tsikimba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

Tso

[ldp] 16,000 (1992 CAPRO). Adamawa State, Numan LGA; Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA. Alternate names: Lotsu-Piri, Cibbo, Tsóbó, Cuyi Tsó, Pire, Piri, Kitta. Dialects: Berbou, Gusubou, Swabou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona

Tsuvadi

[tvd] 150,000 (1998). Niger State, Bangi, Kontagora, and Rijau LGAs. Alternate names: Avadi, Abadi, Evadi, Kamberi, Ibeto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

Tula

[tul] 30,000 (1998 Kleinewillinghöfer). Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA, 30 km east of Billiri. Alternate names: Kotule, Kutule. Dialects: Kutule, Baule, Yili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula

Tumi

[kku] 2,266 (2000 WCD). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Tutumi, Kitimi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Tyap

[kcg] 130,000 (1993 SIL). Kaduna State, Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema'a LGAs. Alternate names: Katab, Kataf. Dialects: Kafanchan (Fantuan, Kpashan), Kachichere (Aticherak, Daroro), Katab (Atyap, Tyap), Kagoro (Agwolok, Agolok, Agwot, Aguro), Atakat (Atakar, Attaka, Attakar, Takat), Sholio (Asholio, Asolio, Osholio, Aholio, Marwa, Morwa, Moroa, Maruwa, Maroa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central . Ubaghara

[byc] 30,000 (1985 UBS). Population includes 24,000 Biakpan. Cross River State, Akampka LGA. Dialects: Biakpan, Ikun, Etono, Ugbem, Utuma (Utama, Utamu). Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara

Ubang

[uba] 3,416 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Obudu LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

Uda

[uda] 10,000 (1988). Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. Dialects: Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda

Uhami

[uha] 13,584 (2000 WCD). Ondo State, Akoko South and Owo LGAs. Alternate names: Ishua. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

Ukaan

[kcf] 18,000 (1973 SIL). Ondo State, Akoko North LGA, towns of Kakumo-Akoko, Auga, Ishe; Edo State, Akoko Edo LGA, town of Anyaran, Kakumo-Aworo. Alternate names: Ikan, Anyaran, Auga, Kakumo. Dialects: Ishe, Kakumo, Auga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan

Ukpe-Bayobiri

[ukp] 12,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Obudu and Ikom LGAs. Dialects: Ukpe, Bayobiri. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

Ukpet-Ehom

[akd] 11,386 (2000 WCD). Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. Alternate names: Akpet-Ehom. Dialects: Ukpet (Akpet), Ehom (Ubeteng, Ebeteng). A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet

Ukue

[uku] 14,085 (2000 WCD). Ondo State, Akoko South LGA. Alternate names: Ukpe, Ekpenmi, Ekpenmen, Epinmi. Dialects: Related to Ehuen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

Ukwa

[ukq] 100 (2004). Cross River State, Akampka LGA. Dialects: Listed separately by Crozier and Blench 1992. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik

Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni

[ukw] 150,000 (1973 SIL). Delta State, Ndokwa LGA; Rivers State, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA. Dialects: Ukwuani (Ukwani, Ukwali, Kwale), Abo (Aboh, Eboh), Ndoni. A dialect cluster within the Igbo language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

Ulukwumi

[ulb] 10,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Delta State, Aniocha and Oshimili LGAs. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Umon

[umm] 20,000 (1995). Cross River State, Akampka LGA, 25 villages. Alternate names: Amon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono

Uneme

[une] 19,846 (2000 WCD). Edo State, Etsako, Agbazko, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. Alternate names: Uleme, Ileme, Ineme. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Uokha

[uok] North and west of Afuze, Owan LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central

Urhobo

[urh] 546,000 (1993 Johnstone). Delta State, Ethiope and Ughelli LGAs. Alternate names: "Sobo". Dialects: Agbarho, Ujevwe, Agbon, Udu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

Usaghade

[usk] Cross River State, Odukpani LGA, half of a village. In and around Calabar. Alternate names: Usakade, Usakedet, Isangele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade

Uvbie

[evh] 19,801 (2000 WCD). Delta State, Ethiope LGA. Alternate names: "Evhro", Uvhria, Uvwie, Evrie, Effurun. Dialects: Related to Urhobo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

Uzekwe

[eze] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. Alternate names: Ezekwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele

Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri

[bij] 20,000 (2003). Plateau State, Mangu LGA; Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA, 10 villages 20 km south of Tafawa Balewa. Alternate names: Kwanka. Dialects: Vaghat (Tivaghat, Kadun, Kwanka), Ya (Tiya, Boi), Bijim, Legeri. Dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

Vemgo-Mabas

[vem] 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 15,000. Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Madagali District. Also spoken in Cameroon. Dialects: Vemgo, Mabas, Visik (Vizik). 56% intelligibility of Lamang, 36% intelligibility of Hedi. Possibly intelligible with Mafa. Lexical similarity 78% with Hide, 64% with Lamang, 50% with Gvoko. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang

Viti

[vit] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Alternate names: Vötö. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified

Vono

[kch] 500 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. Alternate names: Kiballo, Kiwollo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

Voro

[vor] Adamawa State, Guyuk and Song LGAs, south of the Dumne road, Waltande and associated hamlets. Alternate names: Ebina, Ebuna, Buna, Bena, Woro, Yungur. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba

Vute

[vut] 1,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Northeast Mambila Plateau. Alternate names: Mbute, Mbutere, Bute, Wute, Fute, Buti, Babute, Mfuti, Wetere, Vutere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute

Waja

[wja] 60,000 (1989 Kleinewillinghöfer). Gombe State, Balanga, Akko, Yamaltu Deba LGAs; Adamawa State, northern Michika LGA; Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Taraba State, Bali LGA. Alternate names: Wiyaa, Wuya, Nyan Wiyau. Dialects: Deruwo (Wajan Dutse), Waja (Wajan Kasa). Only small dialect differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula

Waka

[wav] 5,000 (1992). Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

Wandala

[mfi] 20,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population includes 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa. Borno State, Damboa, Bama, Gwoza, and Konduga LGAs. Alternate names: Mandara, Ndara. Dialects: Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Gamargu (Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Kirawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara

Wannu

[jub] 4,000. A few thousand (1998 Storch). Gongola State, Makurdi Division, Iharev District at Abinsi town. Alternate names: Awannu, Abinsi, Jukun Abinsi, River Jukun. Dialects: A member of the Kororofa language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa

Wapan

[juk] 100,000 (1994 UBS). Taraba State, Wukari LGA; Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang LGAs; Nasarawa State, Lafia and Awe LGAs. Alternate names: Jukun Wukari, Wukari, Wakari, Wapã, Jukun Wapan, Juku, Jukum, Jukon, Juku Junkun, Jinkum. Dialects: Wukan. A member of the Kororofa language cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa

Wãpha

[juw] 1,605 (2000 WCD). Plateau State, Shendam, Wase LGA, Wase Tofa village, and Kumbur village, Langtang LGA. Alternate names: Wase, Wase Tofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun

Warji

[wji] 77,665 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA; Jigawa State, Birnin Kudu LGA. Alternate names: Warja, Warjawa, Sar, Sarawa. Dialects: Gala may be a dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Wom

[wom] 5,000 (1989 Blench). Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. Alternate names: Pere, Perema, Pereba. Dialects: Close to Samba Leko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko

Yace

[ekr] 50,000 (2002). Cross River State, Yala Local Government Area, Osina, Imbuor, Aliforkpa (Ewor), Wonyer, Maa (formerly Ijiegu). Alternate names: Yache, Yatye, Iyace, Ekpari. Dialects: Alifokpa, Ijiegu. Lexical similarity 84% with Akpa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa

Yala

[yba] 50,000 (1973 SIL). Cross River State, Ogoja, Obubra, and Ikom LGAs. Alternate names: Iyala. Dialects: Nkum (Yala Ikom), Nkum Akpambe (Yala Obubra), Yala Ogoja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

Yamba

[yam] Few speakers in Nigeria (1990 Blench). Taraba State, Sardauna and Gashaka LGAs, Antere, and other border villages. Alternate names: Mbem, "Kaka". Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

Yangkam

[bsx] 100 (1996 Blench). Plateau State, Kanam, Langtang, and Wase LGAs, west of Bashar, 25 km north of Jarme on the Amper-Bashar road. 4 villages: Tukur, Bayar, Pyaksam, and Kiram; and 2 older adult men in Yuli, 15 km northwest of Bashar. Alternate names: Yankam, Basharawa, Bashiri, Bashar. Dialects: Close to Pe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

Yedina

[bdm] 3,000 in Nigeria. Borno State, on islands in Lake Chad. Alternate names: Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana. Dialects: Buduma, Kuri (Kouri, Kakaa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma

Yekhee

[ets] 274,000 (1995 UBS). Edo State, Etsako, Agbako, and Okpebho LGAs. Alternate names: Etsako, Etsakor, Afenmai, Iyekhee, "Kukuruku". Dialects: Auchi, Uzairue, South Ibie (South Ivbie), Uwepa-Uwano (Weppa Wano), Avianwu (Fugar), Aviele, Ivhiadaobi, Ekperi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

Yendang

[yen] 62,640 (1987). Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Numan LGAs; Taraba State, Yoro, Jalingo, Zing, and Karim Lamido LGAs. Alternate names: Yendam, Yandang, Nyandang, Yundum. Dialects: Kuseki, Yofo, Poli (Akule, Yakule), Yoti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

Yeskwa

[yes] 13,000 (1973 SIL). Kaduna State, Jema'a LGA; Nasarawa State, Keffi LGA. Alternate names: Yasgua. Dialects: Panda, Nyenkpa, Tattara, Bede, Buzi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro

Yiwom

[gek] 14,050 (2000). Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs. Alternate names: Gerka, Gerkawa, Gerkanchi, Gurka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom

Yoruba

[yor] 18,850,000 in Nigeria (1993 Johnstone). Population total all countries: 19,327,000. Most of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo Osun, Kwara, and Lagos states; and western LGAs of Kogi State. Also spoken in Benin, Togo, United Kingdom, USA. Alternate names: Yooba, Yariba. Dialects: Oyo, Ijesha, Ila, Ijebu, Ondo, Wo, Owe, Jumu, Iworro, Igbonna, Yagba, Gbedde, Egba, Akono, Aworo, Bunu (Bini), Ekiti, Ilaje, Ikale, Awori. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

Yukuben

[ybl] 15,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 15,950. Taraba State, Takum LGA, between the Katsina Ala and Gamana rivers. About 20 villages in Nigeria. Also spoken in Cameroon. Alternate names: Nyikuben, Nyikobe, Ayikiben, Boritsu, Balaabe, Balaaben, Oohum, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi, Uhumkhegi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

Zangwal

[zah] 100 (1993). Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Alternate names: Zwangal, Twar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum

Zari

[zaz] 20,746 (2000 WCD). Population includes 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto. Bauchi State, Toro, Dass, and Tafawa Balewa LGAs, and Plateau State. Alternate names: Zariwa. Dialects: Zakshi (Zaksa), Boto (Boot, Bibot), Zari (Kopti, Kwapm). In the Zari dialect cluster in the Barawa language cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

Zarma

[dje] 87,800 in Nigeria (2000). Kebbi State, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, and Bunza LGAs; north of Mokwa in villages along the road to Kontagora in Niger State; several villages north of Nguru in Yobe State. Alternate names: Dyerma, Dyarma, Dyabarma, Zabarma, Adzerma, Djerma, Zarbarma, Zerma. Dialects: Kaado. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern

Zeem

[zua] 1,708 (2000 WCD). Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Dialects: Zeem (Tulai), Danshe (Chaari), Lushi (Lukshi, Dokshi). The Zeem dialect cluster in the Barawa language cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

Zhire

[zhi] Kaduna State, Kachia and Jema'a LGAs. Alternate names: Kenyi. Dialects: Related to Hyam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

Ziriya

[zir] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Kere and Ziriya. Alternate names: Jiriya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Nearly extinct.

Zizilivakan

[ziz] Adamawa State, Mubi LGA, Jilbu town, near Cameroon border. Alternate names: Ziziliveken, Ziliva, Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

Zumbun

[jmb] 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement. Alternate names: Jimbin, Jimbinawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Extinct languages

Ajawa

[ajw] Extinct. Bauchi State. Alternate names: Aja, Ajanci. Dialects: Related to Miya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

Auyokawa

[auo] Extinct. Jigawa State, Keffin Hausa and Auyo LGAs. Alternate names: Auyakawa, Awiaka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1

Basa-Gumna

[bsl] Extinct. Niger State, Chanchaga LGA; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA. Alternate names: Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Gwadara Basa, Basa Kuta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

Gamo-Ningi

[bte] Extinct. Ethnic population: 15,000 (1992 Crozier and Blench). Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. Dialects: Gamo (Buta, Mbuta, Mbotu, Ba-Buche, Ba-Mbutu), Ningi. Formerly a dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji

Holma

[hod] Extinct. Adamawa State, north of Sorau on the Cameroon border. Alternate names: Da Holmaci, Bali Holma. Dialects: Related to Nzanyi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8


Kpati

[koc] Extinct. Taraba State, Wukari, Takum LGAs. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba

Kubi

[kof] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO). Bauchi State, Gunjawa LGA, Kubi town. Alternate names: Kuba, Kubawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

Mawa

[wma] Extinct. Bauchi State, Toro LGA, possibly Mara village. Classification: Unclassified

Teshenawa

[twc] Extinct. Jigawa State, Keffin Hausa LGA, Teshena town. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper

Sources: [1] [2]