Oyo State is an inland state in south-western Nigeria, with its capital at Ibadan. It is bounded in the north by Kwara State, in the east by Osun State, in the south by Ogun State and in the west partly by Ogun State and partly by the Republic of Benin.
It was formed in 1976 from the former Western State, and originally included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. Ọyọ State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high density urban centers. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to the Yoruba family and speaking the same Yoruba language. Other people from within and outside the country trade and settle in the state mostly in the urban areas. The capital, Ibadan is reputed to be the largest indigenous city in Africa, south of the Sahara. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region, Nigeria since the days of the British colonial rule. Other notable cities and towns in Ọyọ State include Ọyọ, Ogbomọsọ, Isẹyin, Kiṣi, Okeho, Saki, Eruwa, Lanlate, and Igbo Ọra. The climate in the state favours the cultivation of crops like maize, yam, cassava, millet, rice, plantain, cacao tree, palm tree and cashew. There are a number of government farm settlements in Ipapo, Ilora, Eruwa, Ogbomosho, Iresaadu, Ijaiye, Akufo and Lalupon. There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine. There are also vast cattle ranches at Saki, Fasola, Moniya and Ibadan.
The state is located in the Southwestern area of Nigeria. Oyo State has a land area of about 27,249 square kilometers. It borders Ogun State to the south, Kwara State to the north and Osun State to the east, it also as an international border with the republic of Benin to the north.
Stretches of northern zones of Oyo falls within the transition woodland or Southern guinea while some parts of the north are derived guinea savanna where the Asasbari hill is a prominent relief feature, the Tropical High forest covers much of the southern zone. The dry season runs from November to early March while the rain season from March to October. Between December and January is harmattan while the rainy season is characterized by high humidity and occasional gusty winds.
River Osun and Oyan are within the state borders, the former serves as the source of the man made Asejire lake, a reservoir of water storage for domestic and industrial consumption.
Oyo state is one of the most populous states in Southern Nigeria. The state is largely comprised of Yoruba speaking speaking people of various dialects such as Oyo, Ibadan, Ibarapa while there are significant Fulani settlements in parts of Northern Oyo. Ibadan, the state capital was the administrative capital of the old Western region, it is also one of the largest cities in tropical Africa.
The state is a significant producer of maize and cassava while various other food crops such as yam, millet, and plantains are also produced in the state. It is also a center of cash crop produce such as cocoa along with edible fruits like orange, banana, paw paw, lime, lemon, agbalumo and pineapples. The state hosts a number of agricultural research institutes including the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training. Many cooperative societies focused on agriculture abound in the state and are sometimes thought of as modernizing socio-economic institutions while an agricultural development project was initiated to boost food production in four zones located at Ibadan, Ogbomosho, Saki and Oyo
Commerce and Industry
There are various small, medium, and large scale industrial ventures in the state while the state is also a center of traditional craft such as leather, cloth weaving and carving. Some cities and towns in the north are known for the sawmilling and bread industry.
Trading, hawking and food processing is also a significant employer of labor in the state. The city of Ibadan is a significant commercial and industrial center in the region, the Dugbe, Oja'Oba and Gbagi markets are major centers of trade located in Ibadan, while the city also plays host to two major regional road networks: the Ibadan-Lagos rd and Ibadan-Oyo-Ogbomosho- Ilorin rd.
Arts, culture and tourism
Various monuments abound in the state including craft industries in regions of Awe, Oyo, Fiditi, Iseyin and Ogbomosho. Located within the Old Oyo empire, the state has significant ancient settlements such as Igboho, Ijaye, and Oyo town and other walled Old Oyo settlements and also the Old Oyo National Park.
Over the years, the state government has dedicated a large percentage of its budget to education, for a number of years, education costs for primary education was kept at a minimum. The state has four teacher training colleges and technical college. While the University of Ibadan and Ibadan polytechnic is located in Ibadan, a state university is situated in Ogbomosho while in Oyo is a college of education.
Health care provision is shared by the private sector and the federal, state and local governments. The largest provider are the state Ministry of Health, hospital management boards and local governments. Major health centers includes various private hospitals in Ibadan, a state hospital at Ring road, Ibadan, the University College, Hospital, 3 comprehensive health centers, primary health centers and general and district hospitals.
The state consists of thirty three Local Government Areas:
- Ibadan North
- Ibadan North-East
- Ibadan North-West
- Ibadan South-West
- Ibadan South-East
- Ogbomosho North
- Ogbomosho South
- Oyo West
- Saki West
- Saki East
- Ibarapa North