Economy of Nigeria
Economy of Nigeria BY ROTR.GBARUKO PROSPER IHECHUKWU
Economy of Nigeria Currency Nigerian naira (N) (NGN) Trade organisations OPEC Statistics GDP $353.2 billion (2009 est.) GDP growth 3.8% (2009 est.) GDP per capita $2,400 (2009 est.) GDP by sector agriculture: 33.4%; industry: 34.1%; services: 32.5% (2009 est.) Inflation (CPI) 11.5% (2009 est.) Population below poverty line 70% (2007 est.) Gini index 43.7 (2003) Labour force 47.33 million (2009 est.) Labour force by occupation agriculture: 70%; industry: 10%; services: 20% (1999 est.) Unemployment 4.9% (2007 est.) Main industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair Ease of Doing Business Rank 125th External Exports $45.43 billion (2009 est.) Export goods petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber Main export partners United States 42%, Brazil 9.5%, India 9%, Spain 7.3%, France 5.1% (2008) Imports $42.1 billion (2009 est.) Import goods machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals Main import partners China 16.1%, Netherlands 11.3%, United States 9.8%, United Kingdom 6.2%, South Korea 6.1%, France 5.1%, Germany 4.4% (2008) FDI stock $71.59 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Gross external debt $9.689 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Public finances Public debt 17.8% of GDP (2009 est.) Revenues $10.49 billion Expenses $18.08 billion (2009 est.) Foreign reserves $46.54 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars
The petroleum-based economy of Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic management, is undergoing substantial economic reform following the restoration of democratic rule in 1999. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy. The economy has overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides less than 25% of GDP, despite providing 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of government revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now imports some of its food products. In 2006, Nigeria successfully convinced the Paris Club to let it buy back the bulk of its debts owed to the Paris Club for a cash payment of roughly $12 billion (USD).
- 1 Overview
- 2 Agriculture
- 3 Nigeria ranks 44th worldwide and third in Africa in factory output.
- 4 Nigeria ranks 63rd worldwide and fifth in Africa in services' output. Low power and telecom density has crippled the growth of this sector.
- 5 Transport
- 6 Gradual reform
- 7 Diversification
- 8 External trade
- 9 Debt
- 10 Data
- 11 Recently Upgrading
Nigeria’s economy is struggling to leverage the country’s vast wealth in fossil fuels in order to displace the crushing poverty that affects about 57 percent of its population. Economists refer to the coexistence of vast wealth in natural resources and extreme personal poverty in developing countries like Nigeria as the “resource curse”. Nigeria’s exports of oil and natural gas—at a time of peak prices—have enabled the country to post merchandise trade and current account surpluses in recent years. Reportedly, 80 percent of Nigeria’s energy revenues flow to the government, 16 percent cover operational costs, and the remaining 4 percent go to investors. However, the World Bank has estimated that as a result of corruption 80 percent of energy revenues benefit only 1 percent of the population. In 2005, Nigeria achieved a milestone agreement with the Paris Club of lending nations to eliminate all of its bilateral external debt. Under the agreement, the lenders will forgive most of the debt, and Nigeria will pay off the remainder with a portion of its energy revenues. Outside of the energy sector, Nigeria’s economy is highly inefficient. Moreover, human capital is underdeveloped—Nigeria ranked 151 out of 177 countries in the United Nations Development Index in 2004—and non-energy-related infrastructure is inadequate.
From 2003 to 2007, Nigeria attempted to implement an economic reform program called the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS). The purpose of the NEEDS was to raise the country’s standard of living through a variety of reforms, including macroeconomic stability, deregulation, liberalization, privatization, transparency, and accountability. The NEEDS addressed basic deficiencies, such as the lack of freshwater for household use and irrigation, unreliable power supplies, decaying infrastructure, impediments to private enterprise, and corruption. The government hoped that the NEEDS would create 7 million new jobs, diversify the economy, boost non-energy exports, increase industrial capacity utilization, and improve agricultural productivity. A related initiative on the state level is the State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS).
A longer-term economic development program is the United Nations (UN)-sponsored National Millennium Goals for Nigeria. Under the program, which covers the years from 2000 to 2015, Nigeria is committed to achieve a wide range of ambitious objectives involving poverty reduction, education, gender equality, health, the environment, and international development cooperation. In an update released in 2004, the UN found that Nigeria was making progress toward achieving several goals but was falling short on others. Specifically, Nigeria had advanced efforts to provide universal primary education, protect the environment, and develop a global development partnership. However, the country lagged behind on the goals of eliminating extreme poverty and hunger, reducing child and maternal mortality, and combating diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and malaria.
A prerequisite for achieving many of these worthwhile objectives is curtailing endemic corruption, which stymies development and taints Nigeria’s business environment. President Olusegun Obasanjo’s campaign against corruption, which includes the arrest of officials accused of misdeeds and recovering stolen funds, has won praise from the World Bank. In September 2005, Nigeria, with the assistance of the World Bank, began to recover US$458 million of illicit funds that had been deposited in Swiss banks by the late military dictator Sani Abacha, who ruled Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. However, while broad-based progress has been slow, these efforts have begun to become evident in international surveys of corruption. In fact, Nigeria's ranking has consistently improved since 2001 ranking 147 out of 180 countries in Transparency International’s 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index  and placed 108 out of 175 countries in the World Bank’s 2006 Ease of Doing Business Index. Macro-economic trend
This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Nigeria at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Nigerian Naira. Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange Inflation Index (2000=100) Per Capita Income (as % of USA) 1980 50,849 0.78 Naira 1.30 7.22 1985 98,619 2.83 Naira 3.20 1.87 1990 286,374 8.94 Naira 8.10 1.49 1995 1,928,642 54.36 Naira 56 1.28 2000 4,676,394 102.24 Naira 100 1.11 2005 14,894,454 131.01 Naira 207 1.96
For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 75.75 Nigerian Naira only.
Current GDP per capita of Nigeria expanded 132% in the Sixties reaching a peak growth of 283% in the Seventies. But this proved unsustainable and it consequently shrank by 66% in the Eighties. In the Nineties, diversification initiatives finally took effect and decadal growth was restored to 10%.
Due to inflation, per capita GDP today remains lower than in 1960 when Nigeria declared independence. About 57 percent of the population lives on less than US$1 per day. In 2005 the GDP was composed of the following sectors: agriculture, 26.8 percent; industry, 48.8 percent; and services, 24.4 percent.
In 2005 Nigeria’s inflation rate was an estimated 15.6 percent. Nigeria’s goal under the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) program is to reduce inflation to the single digits.
In 2005 Nigeria’s central government had expenditures of US$13.54 billion but revenues of only US$12.86 billion, resulting in a budget deficit of 5 percent. Nigerian tax authorities face the challenge of widespread tax evasion, which is motivated by complaints about corruption and the poor quality of services.
Average wages in 2007 hover around $4–5 per day.
Nigeria ranks twenty fifth worldwide and first in Africa in farm output.
Agriculture has suffered from years of mismanagement, inconsistent and poorly conceived government policies, and the lack of basic infrastructure. Still, the sector accounts for over 26.8% of GDP  and two-thirds of employment. Nigeria is no longer a major exporter of cocoa, groundnuts (peanuts), rubber, and palm oil. Cocoa production, mostly from obsolete varieties and overage trees, is stagnant at around 180,000 tons annually; 25 years ago it was 300,000 tons. An even more dramatic decline in groundnut and palm oil production also has taken place. Once the biggest poultry producer in Africa, corporate poultry output has been slashed from 40 million birds annually to about 18 million. Import constraints limit the availability of many agricultural and food processing inputs for poultry and other sectors. Fisheries are poorly managed. Most critical for the country's future, Nigeria's land tenure system does not encourage long-term investment in technology or modern production methods and does not inspire the availability of rural credit.
Agricultural products include cassava (tapioca), corn, cocoa, millet, palm oil, peanuts, rice, rubber, sorghum, and yams. In 2003 livestock production, in order of metric tonnage, featured eggs, milk, beef and veal, poultry, and pork, respectively. In the same year, the total fishing catch was 505.8 metric tons. Roundwood removals totaled slightly less than 70 million cubic meters, and sawnwood production was estimated at 2 million cubic meters. The agricultural sector suffers from extremely low productivity, reflecting reliance on antiquated methods. Although overall agricultural production rose by 28 percent during the 1990s, per capita output rose by only 8.5 percent during the same decade. Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria’s rapid population growth, so that the country, which once exported food, now relies on imports to sustain itself. Industry
Nigeria ranks 44th worldwide and third in Africa in factory output.
The oil boom of the 1970s led Nigeria to neglect its strong agricultural and light manufacturing bases in favor of an unhealthy dependence on crude oil. In 2000, oil and gas exports accounted for more than 98% of export earnings and about 83% of federal government revenue. New oil wealth, the concurrent decline of other economic sectors, and a lurch toward a statist economic model fueled massive migration to the cities and led to increasingly widespread poverty, especially in rural areas. A collapse of basic infrastructure and social services since the early 1980s accompanied this trend. By 2000, Nigeria's per capita income had plunged to about one-quarter of its mid-1970s high, below the level at independence. Along with the endemic malaise of Nigeria's non-oil sectors, the economy continues to witness massive growth of "informal sector" economic activities, estimated by some to be as high as 75% of the total economy.
Nigeria's proven oil reserves are estimated to be 35 billion barrels (5.6×109 m3); natural gas reserves are well over 100 trillion ft³ (2,800 km³). Nigeria is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and in mid-2001, its crude oil production was averaging around 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m³) per day. The types of crude oil exported by Nigeria are Bonny light oil, Forcados crude oil, Qua Ibo crude oil and Brass River crude oil. Poor corporate relations with indigenous communities, vandalism of oil infrastructure, severe ecological damage, and personal security problems throughout the Niger Delta oil-producing region continue to plague Nigeria's oil sector. Efforts are underway to reverse these troubles. In the absence of government programs, the major multinational oil companies have launched their own community development programs. A new entity, the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC), has been created to help catalyze economic and social development in the region. Although it has yet to launch its programs, hopes are high that the NDDC can reverse the impoverishment of local communities. The U.S. remains Nigeria's largest customer for crude oil, accounting for 40% of the country's total oil exports; Nigeria provides about 10% of overall U.S. oil imports and ranks as the fifth-largest source for U.S. imported oil.
The United Kingdom is Nigeria's largest trading partner followed by the United States. Although the trade balance overwhelmingly favors Nigeria, thanks to oil exports, a large portion of U.S. exports to Nigeria is believed to enter the country outside of the Nigerian government's official statistics, due to importers seeking to avoid Nigeria's excessive tariffs. To counter smuggling and under-invoicing by importers, in May 2001, the Nigerian government instituted a full inspection program for all imports, and enforcement has been sustained. On the whole, Nigerian high tariffs and non-tariff barriers are gradually being reduced, but much progress remains to be made. The government also has been encouraging the expansion of foreign investment, although the country's investment climate remains daunting to all but the most determined. The stock of U.S. investment is nearly $7 billion, mostly in the energy sector. Exxon Mobil and Chevron are the two largest U.S. corporations in offshore oil and gas production. Significant exports of liquefied natural gas started in late 1999 and are slated to expand as Nigeria seeks to eliminate gas flaring by 2008.
Oil dependency, and the allure it generated of great wealth through government contracts, spawned other economic distortions. The country's high propensity to import means roughly 80% of government expenditures is recycled into foreign exchange. Cheap consumer imports, resulting from a chronically overvalued Naira, coupled with excessively high domestic production costs due in part to erratic electricity and fuel supply, pushed down utilization of industrial capacity to less than 30%. Many more Nigerian factories would have closed except for relatively low labor costs (10%–15%). Domestic manufacturers, especially pharmaceuticals and textiles, have lost their ability to compete in traditional regional markets. However, there are signs that some manufacturers have begun to improve competitiveness.
Nigeria's official foreign debt is about $28.5 billion, about 75% of which is owed to Paris Club countries. A large chunk of this debt is interest and payment arrears. In August 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Nigeria signed a one-year stand-by arrangement (SBA), leading to a debt rescheduling agreement in December between Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors. By August 2001, despite continued dialogue with the IMF, Nigeria had been unable to implement many of the SBA conditions. The IMF consented to extend its SBA by a few months and seek out revised targets and conditions for a new agreement. As of September 2001, only a few of Nigeria's creditor governments had signed bilateral rescheduling agreements. Another obstacle to debt restructuring involves World Bank classification. Any long-term debt relief will require strong and sustained economic reforms over a number of years.
The last paragraph is dated. "In April 2006, Nigeria became the first African country to fully pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club."Paris Club
In the light of highly expansionary public sector fiscal policies in 2001, the government sought ways to head off higher inflation, leading to the implementation of stronger monetary policies by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and underspending of budgeted amounts. As a result of the CBN's efforts, the official exchange rate for the Naira has stabilized at about 112 Naira to the dollar. The combination of CBN's efforts to prop up the value of the Naira and excess liquidity resulting from government spending led the currency to be discounted by around 20% on the parallel (non-official) market. A key condition of the Stand-by Arrangement has been closure of the gap between the official and parallel market exchange rates. The Inter Bank Foreign Exchange Market (IFEM) is closely tied to the official rate. Under IFEM, banks, oil companies, and the CBN can buy or sell their foreign exchange at government influenced rates. Much of the informal economy, however, can only access foreign exchange through the parallel market. Companies can hold domiciliary accounts in private banks, and account holders have unfettered use of the funds.
Expanded government spending also has led to upward pressure on consumer prices. Inflation which had almost disappeared in April 2000 reached 14.5% by the end of the year and 18.7% in August 2001. In 2000, high oil prices resulted in government revenue of over $16 billion, about double the 1999 level. State and local governments demanded access to this "windfall" revenue, creating a tug-of-war between the federal government, which sought to control spending, and state governments desiring augmented budgets, preventing the government from making provision for periods of lower oil prices. Services
Nigeria ranks 63rd worldwide and fifth in Africa in services' output. Low power and telecom density has crippled the growth of this sector.
Since undergoing severe distress in the mid-1990s, Nigeria's banking sector has witnessed significant growth over the last few years as new banks enter the financial market. Harsh monetary policies implemented by the Central Bank of Nigeria to absorb excess Naira liquidity in the economy has made life more difficult for banks, some of whom engage in currency arbitrage (round-tripping) activities that generally fall outside legal banking mechanisms. Private sector-led economic growth remains stymied by the high cost of doing business in Nigeria, including the need to duplicate essential infrastructure, the threat of crime and associated need for security counter measures, the lack of effective due process, and nontransparent economic decisionmaking, especially in government contracting. As of 2007, 29% of Nigerians in urban areas did not own bank accounts.
While corrupt practices are endemic, they are generally less flagrant than during military rule, and there are signs of improvement. Meanwhile, since 1999 the Nigerian Stock Exchange has enjoyed strong performance, although equity as a means to foster corporate growth remains underutilized by Nigeria's private sector.
Main article: Transport in Nigeria
Nigeria's publicly owned transportation infrastructure is a major constraint to economic development. Principal ports are at Lagos (Apapa and Tin Can Island), Port Harcourt, and Calabar. Docking fees for freighters are among the highest in the world. Of the 80,500 kilometers (50,000 mi.) of roads, more than 15,000 kilometers (10,000 mi.) are officially paved, but many remain in poor shape. Extensive road repairs and new construction activities are gradually being implemented as state governments, in particular, spend their portions of enhanced government revenue allocations. The government implementation of 100% destination inspection of all goods entering Nigeria has resulted in long delays in clearing goods for importers and created new sources of corruption, since the ports lack adequate facilities to carry out the inspection. Four of Nigeria's airports—Lagos, Kano, Port Harcourt and Abuja--currently receive international flights. Government-owned Nigeria Airways ceased operations in December 2002. Virgin Nigeria Airways started operations in 2005 as a replacement and serves domestic and international routes. There are several domestic private Nigerian carriers, and air service among Nigeria's cities is generally dependable. The maintenance culture of Nigeria's domestic airlines is not up to internationally accepted standards. Labor force
In 2005, Nigeria had a labor force of 57.2 million. In 2003, the unemployment rate was 10.8 percent overall; urban unemployment of 12.3 percent exceeded rural unemployment of 7.4 percent. According to the latest available information from 1999, labor force employment by sector was as follows: 70 percent in agriculture, 20 percent in services, and 10 percent in industry. Labor unions, which have undergone periods of militancy and quiescence, reemerged as a force in 1998 when they regained independence from the government. Since 1999, the Nigerian Labor Congress (NLC), a union umbrella organization, has called six general strikes to protest domestic fuel price increases. However, in March 2005 the government introduced legislation ending the NLC’s monopoly over union organizing. In December 2005, the NLC was lobbying for an increase in the minimum wage for federal workers. The existing minimum wage, which was introduced six years earlier but has not been adjusted since, has been whittled away by inflation to only US$42.80 per month.
According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of immigrants residing in Nigeria has more than doubled in recent decades – from 477,135 in 1991 to 971,450 in 2005. The majority of immigrants in Nigeria (74 per cent) are from neighbouring Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and that this number has increased considerably over the last decade, from 63 per cent in 2001 to 97 per cent in 2005. In spite of Nigeria's importance as a destination for migrants in the region, more people are emigrating from, than immigrating to, Nigeria with the negative net migration rate (per 1,000 people) steadily increasing in recent years, from -0.2 in 2000 to -0.3 in 2005, and this trend is expected to continue. According to recent estimates, the net migration rate could reach -0.4 in 2010. 
The Obasanjo government supports "private-sector" led, "market oriented" economic growth and has begun extensive economic reform efforts. Although the government's anti-corruption campaign has so far been disappointing, progress in injecting transparency and accountability into economic decisionmaking is notable. The dual exchange rate mechanism formally abolished in the 1999 budget remains in place in actuality. During 2000 the government's privatization program showed signs of life and real promise with successful turnover to the private sector of state-owned banks, fuel distribution companies, and cement plants. However, the privatization process has slowed somewhat as the government confronts key parastatals such as the state telephone company NITEL and Nigerian Airways. The successful auction of GSM telecommunications licenses in January 2001 has encouraged investment in this vital sector.
Although the government has been stymied so far in its desire to deregulate downstream petroleum prices, state refineries, almost paralyzed in 2000, are producing at much higher capacities. By August 2001, gasoline lines disappeared throughout much of the country. The government still intends to pursue deregulation despite significant internal opposition, particularly from the Nigeria Labour Congress. To meet market demand the government incurs large losses importing gasoline to sell at subsidized prices.
In 2007, mining and hydrocarbon industries accounted for well over 95 per cent of the Nigerian economy. Diversification of the economy into manufacturing industries remain a long-term issue.  Investment
Although Nigeria must grapple with its decaying infrastructure and a poor regulatory environment, the country possesses many positive attributes for carefully targeted investment and will expand as both a regional and international market player. Profitable niche markets outside the energy sector, like specialized telecommunication providers, have developed under the government's reform program. There is a growing Nigerian consensus that foreign investment is essential to realizing Nigeria's vast but squandered potential. European investments are increasing, especially since Belgian consultancy companies such as Genco are exploring the Nigerian market.
Companies interested in long-term investment and joint ventures, especially those that use locally available raw materials, will find opportunities in the large national market. However, to improve prospects for success, potential investors must educate themselves extensively on local conditions and business practices, establish a local presence, and choose their partners carefully. The Nigerian Government is keenly aware that sustaining democratic principles, enhancing security for life and property, and rebuilding and maintaining infrastructure are necessary for the country to attract foreign investment.
The stock market capitalisation of listed companies in Nigeria was valued at $97.75 billion in February 15 2008 by the Nigerian Stock Exchange.  Foreign economic relations
Nigeria’s foreign economic relations revolve around its role in supplying the world economy with oil and natural gas, even as the country seeks to diversify its exports, harmonize tariffs in line with a potential customs union sought by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and encourage inflows of foreign portfolio and direct investment. In October 2005, Nigeria implemented the ECOWAS Common External Tariff, which reduced the number of tariff bands. Prior to this revision, tariffs constituted Nigeria’s second largest source of revenue after oil exports. In 2005 Nigeria achieved a major breakthrough when it reached an agreement with the Paris Club to eliminate its bilateral debt through a combination of write-downs and buybacks. Nigeria joined the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries in July 1971 and the World Trade Organization in January 1995.
Nigeria's exports in 2006
In 2005, Nigeria imported about US$26 billion of goods. In 2004 the leading sources of imports were China (9.4 percent), the United States (8.4 percent), the United Kingdom (7.8 percent), the Netherlands (5.9 percent), France (5.4 percent), Germany (4.8 percent), and Italy (4 percent). Principal imports were manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, and food and live animals.
In 2005, Nigeria exported about US$52 billion of goods. In 2004, the leading destinations for exports were the United States (47.4 percent), Brazil (10.7 percent), and Spain (7.1 percent). In 2004 oil accounted for 95 percent of merchandise exports, and cocoa and rubber accounted for almost 60 percent of the remainder.
In 2005, Nigeria posted a US$26 billion trade surplus, corresponding to almost 20 percent of gross domestic product. In 2005, Nigeria achieved a positive current account balance of US$9.6 billion. The Nigerian currency is the naira (NGN). As of mid-June 2006, the exchange rate was about US$1=NGN128.4.
In recent years, Nigeria has expanded its trade relations with other developing countries such as India. Nigeria is the largest African crude oil supplier to India — it annually exports 400,000 oil barrels per day to India valued at US$10 billion annually. India is the second largest purchaser of Nigeria's oil which fulfills 20 to 25 percent of India's domestic oil demand. Indian oil companies are also involved in oil drilling operations in Nigeria and have plans to set up refineries there.
According to the International Organization for Migration, Nigeria witnessed a dramatic increase from USD 2.3 billion in 2004 to 17.9 billion in 2007, representing 6.7 per cent of GDP.The United States accounts for the largest portion of official remittances, followed by the United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, Spain and France. On the African continent, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and South Africa are important source countries of remittance flows to Nigeria, while China is the biggest remittance-sending country in Asia. 
In 2008, Nigeria’s external debt was an estimated US$3.3 billion.  Foreign investment
In 2007, Nigeria received a net inflow of US$5.2 billion of foreign direct investment (FDI), much of which came from Nigerians in the diaspora. Most FDI is directed toward the energy and banking sectors.
Swiss Banks to return Abacha Funds
The Swiss foreign ministry says it has done all it can to ensure that funds stolen by the late Nigerian dictator Sani Abacha were used properly in his homeland. The authorities were responding to allegations that $200 million (SFr240 million) of $700 million handed back by the Swiss Banks to Nigeria had been misappropriated.   Economic assistance
As of October 2005, World Bank assistance to Nigeria involved 19 active projects with a total commitment value of about US$1.87 billion. Since Nigeria joined the World Bank in 1961, the World Bank has assisted it on 120 projects. In October 2005, the International Monetary Fund approved a two-year “policy support instrument” designed to promote the growth of the non-oil sector and to reduce poverty.
The United States assisted with Nigeria's economic development from 1954 through June 1974, when concessional assistance was phased out because of a substantial increase in Nigeria's per capita income resulting from rising oil revenue. By 1974, the United States had provided Nigeria with approximately $360 million in assistance, which included grants for technical assistance, development assistance, relief and rehabilitation, and food aid. Disbursements continued into the late 1970s, bringing total bilateral economic assistance to roughly $445 million.
The sharp decline in oil prices, economic mismanagement, and continued military rule characterized Nigeria in the 1980s. In 1983, USAID began providing assistance to the Nigerian Federal and State Ministries of Health to develop and implement programs in family planning and child survival. In 1992, an HIV/AIDS prevention and control program was added to existing health activities. USAID committed $135 million to bilateral assistance programs for the period of 1986 to 1996 as Nigeria undertook an initially successful Structural Adjustment Program, but later abandoned it. Plans to commit $150 million in assistance from 1993 to 2000 were interrupted by strains in U.S.-Nigerian relations over human rights abuses, the failed transition to democracy, and a lack of cooperation from the Nigerian Government on anti-narcotics trafficking issues. By the mid-1990s, these problems resulted in the curtailment of USAID activities that might benefit the military Government. Existing health programs were re-designed to focus on working through grassroots Nigerian non-governmental organizations and community groups. As a response to the Nigerian military government's plans for delayed transition to civilian rule, the Peace Corps closed its program in Nigeria in 1994.
In response to the increasingly repressive political situation, USAID established a Democracy and Governance (DG) program in 1996. This program integrates themes focusing on basic participatory democracy, human rights and civil rights, women's empowerment, accountability, and transparency with other health activities to reach Nigerians at the grassroots level in 14 of Nigeria's 36 states.
The sudden death of General Sani Abacha and the assumption of power by General Abdulsalami Abubakar in June 1998, marked a turning point in U.S.-Nigerian relations. USAID provided significant support to the electoral process by providing some $4 million in funding for international election observation, the training of Nigerian election observers and political party polling agents, as well as voter education activities. A Vital National Interest Certification was submitted to Congress in February 1999 by President Clinton to lift restrictions on U.S. Government interaction with and support to the Government of Nigeria.
Since that time, USAID has supported Nigeria to sustain democracy and to improve governance by providing training on the roles and responsibilities of elected officials in a representative democracy for newly elected officials at the federal, state, and local levels prior to their installation in May 1999 and assisting with conflict prevention and resolution in the Niger Delta, civil military relations, civil society, and political party development. In the economic area USAID supports programs in strengthening economic management and coordination, encouraging private sector development and economic reform, helping Nigeria reap the benefits of AGOA, improved agricultural technology and marketing and smallscale and microenterprise development. In addition, health assistance, focusing on HIV/AIDS, nutrition, and immunization, education, transportation and energy infrastructure, are priorities for bilateral assistance.
GDP: purchasing power parity – $359.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 7% (July 2006 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $2660 (2007 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 26.8% industry: 48.8% services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: 45% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:r lowest 10%: 2.6% highest 10%: 35.8% (1996–97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 57.21 million
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.9% NA (2005 est.)
Budget: revenues: $17 billion expenditures: $13.54 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2005 est.)
Electricity – production: 15.59 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 61.69% hydro: 38.31% nuclear: 0% other: <.1% (1998)
Electricity - consumption: 14.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports: 40 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)
Oil - production: 2.35 million bbl/day (July 2006 est.)
Oil - consumption: 310,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Agriculture – products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Exports: $72.16 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports – commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports – partners: United States 47.4%, Brazil 10.7%, Spain 7.1%(2004)
Imports: $45.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports – partners: the People's Republic of China 9.4%, United States 8.4%, United Kingdom 7.8%, Netherlands 5.9%, France 5.4%, Germany 4.8%, Italy 4% (2004)
Debt – external: $3.3 billion with London Club(2006 est.)
Economic aid – recipient: IMF $250 million (1998)
Currency: 1 Naira (NGN) = 100 kobo
Exchange rates: Naira (NGN) per US$1 – 149.5 (2009), 120 (2006), 128 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002), 111.23 (2001)
External Reserves: $59 billion ( 2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year 2009
Is Global Economic Recovery Screeching to a Halt?
The overall global economic activity appears to have lost the momentum of its rebound during the Q2 2010, as concerns regarding the possibility of a second round of financial crisis spread across global economies. The current budget deficits and planned cuts in spending in most developed countries may pose further challenges to sustainable global economic recovery. Recent economic data from developed economies indicate a disturbing situation, with unemployment rates remaining high, amid further weakening in manufacturing activities and consumer sentiment. Asia, which appeared resilient during the global economic downturn, could be affected by these adverse developments in Europe due to heavy reliance on export. The threat to global economic recovery appears to be broadly entrenched and real!
Nigerian Political Environment: Tilting towards stability?
Nigeria witnessed some positive developments during the Q2 2010, with laws amended to give financial independence to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and making it mandatory, rather than discretionary, for the country’s President and/ or state Governor to give notice of vacation. FG revealed its commitment to apply the Fiscal Responsibility Act in the award and monitoring of contracts. Peace in the Niger Delta was sustained in Q2 2010 and is expected to stimulate the increase in FDIs in the near term. However, political tensions may worsen if the ruling party fails to agree on a consensus candidate for the 2011 General Elections.
GDP Growth: Contributions from oil industry steals the show
Real GDP grew by 7.68% in Q2 2010, compared to 7.22% growth recorded in the corresponding period of 2009 and 6.68% in Q1 2010. Overall GDP growth for 2010 was projected at 7.74%, which is higher than the revised 6.66% growth recorded in 2009. Sustained growth in non-oil sector, especially agriculture, wholesale, retail trade and services, remained the major driver of growth, as GDP was effectively complemented by rebound in oil sector GDP. The improvement in oil GDP is a key feature that would support overall economic expansion. Significant risk to GDP growth remains the volatility of crude oil price, amid weak demand fundamentals; political instability in relation to constitutional crisis; discontinuation of reforms in key sectors; sustained inflationary pressures; and increased government spending that is not backed by productivity.
Inflation: Upside risks still present
Inflation rate declined from 12.5% in April 2010 to 10.3% YoY in June 2010 due mainly to fall in aggregate demand, amidst high unemployment rate in the face of relative stability in wages. CBN recently noted the subdued threat of inflation in the economy especially with the delay in AMCON Fund hitting the system. Monetary expansion is expected to be driven mainly by increased government spending, purchase of toxic assets by the AMCON and the recapitalization of rescued banks, which may pose significant risks to inflation and the formation of asset price bubbles.
External Reserves: A fortress still under intense pressure
External reserves sustained its downward trajectory during the quarter under review, declining to $37.17 billion on June 30, 2010 from $52.7 billion and $42.43 billion as at end-2008 and end-2009, respectively. The declining external reserve portends significant risk to the value of the Naira, as the country continues to be dependent on FX from oil sales to lubricate the domestic financial market. Naira depreciated against the US Dollar in Q2 2010 when compared with end-Q1 2010 figures, but appreciated at the interbank market, while it remained stable at N152/$ in the BDC. CBN’s commitment to defend the Naira against volatility by meeting all legitimate FX demand at its bi-weekly auction system would likely support the currency in the near term, with dire consequences for the nation’s already depleting external reserves.
Crude Oil Prices: Tremor underneath rebound spring
Bonny Light price declined at the international market during the period under review due mainly to heightened concerns about the probable spread of the Eurozone’s sovereign credit crisis. The drop in crude oil price was a major concern for Nigeria , with President Jonathan urging a downward review of some key assumptions of the 2010 budget. Factors to support crude oil price include the weakening of the US Dollar against major currencies, increased flow of speculative money, supply bottlenecks resulting from political instability in oil producing countries, elevated demand from China , as well as stabilisation in major economies.
Capital Market: A rebound beset by uncertainties
The capital market declined marginally in Q2 2010 compared to end-Q1 2010, although still remarkably up from the low recorded as at end-2009 following the stock market meltdown. The market seems to be exhibiting a ‘graveyard market’ tendency, with occasional sell-off by investors to cut losses. We expect that the recent nosedive in share prices to relatively low levels may stimulate another round of purchase of stocks and cause the ASI to appreciate in the near term, to be undermined by liquidity level in the financial system. NIBOR mirrored liquidity situation in the financial system, with noticeable volatility in the money market during the quarter under review. The apex bank’s guarantee of interbank transactions that was recently extended to June 2011, coupled with other measures may boost confidence in the system. References
1. ^ "Doing Business in Nigeria 2010". World Bank. http://www.doingbusiness.org/ExploreEconomies/?economyid=143. Retrieved 2010-08-20. 2. ^ Center for Global Development : Publications: Resolving Nigeria's Debt Through a Discounted Buyback 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Text used in this cited section originally came from: Nigeria profile from the Library of Congress Country Studies project. 4. ^ cpi_2007_table / cpi2007 / 2007 / in focus / news room / home – Transparency International 5. ^ Rankings – Doing Business – The World Bank Group 6. ^ Olajuwon, Bola (2007-10-29). "29 per cent urban Nigerians shun bank accounts, says study". The Guardian (Lagos) (Guardian Newspapers Limited, via nigeriaworld.com). http://odili.net/news/source/2007/oct/29/32.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 7. ^ a b Nigeria Migration Profile, International Organization for Migration, 2009, http://http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=41_42&products_id=574, retrieved 2010-07-28 8. ^ India seeks expansion of oil trade with Nigeria 9. ^ India to invest $350 m in Nigerian oil blocks 10. ^ ONGC Mittal Drills Nigerian Offshore Oil Block 279
* This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
 External links
* Economy of Nigeria at the Open Directory Project * West African Agricultural Market Observer/Observatoire du Marché Agricole (RESIMAO), a project of the West-African Market Information Network (WAMIS-NET), provides live market and commodity prices from fifty seven regional and local public agricultural markets across Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Niger, Mali, Senegal, Togo, and Nigeria. Sixty commodities are tracked weekly. The project is run by the Benin Ministry of Agriculture, and a number of European, African, and United Nations agencies.